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Santosh Kumar

Science & Technology and Current Affairs

Timeline

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18-Aug-2020 02:42:59 AM

Objective Polity: 30

Which of the following is true about the Sep 2018 Supreme Court verdict on the issue of reservation in promotion for SCs/STs?

  1. Supreme Court has introduced the provision of 'Creamy Layer' to exclude affluent SCs/STs from the benefits of reservation.
  2. The judgment has introduced a precondition that quantifiable data should be available to show that a community is backward in order to get benefit of reservation in promotion
  3.  SC has referred the matter to a 7 member bench of the apex court
  4. The judgment has turned down the request of using the overall population of SC/ST for granting quota. 
Comments
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 on 12-Sep-2020 20:11:30 PM
sir what about current affairs class this year? when it started?

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 on 08-Sep-2020 09:15:59 AM
a

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18-Aug-2020 02:42:38 AM

Objective Polity: 29

Which of the following is/are not true about the Supreme Court verdict in M Nagraj & Others vs Union of India & Others, 2006?

  1. It upheld the various constitutional amendments which were aimed at allowing for reservation in promotion for SCs/STs
  2. It provided that states can give reservation in promotion to SCs/STs if they have quantifiable data showing 'backwardness" of the community, inadequacy of representation of the community and while ensuring efficiency.

Choose your answer from the codes provided below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2 
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 on 20-Sep-2020 18:40:33 PM
sir will you launchings current affairs batch for 2021? if so when ?

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 on 22-Aug-2020 22:40:02 PM
Please post more questions ... Sir if possible make telegram group and post questions there ..it is convenient for us ... And please question daily ...if possible increase number of questions to 25 ...

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18-Aug-2020 02:42:16 AM

Objective Polity: 28

Which of the following is/are true about the recent reservation in Higher Educational Institutions and Jobs provided to economically weaker section of the society through 103rd Constitutional Amendment Act?

  1. The benefit can be availed by all economically weaker section of the society 
  2. The Constitution itself caps the reservation at 10% of the total seats/jobs offered.

 

Choose the correct answer from the codes provided below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2 
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18-Aug-2020 02:41:56 AM

Objective Polity: 27

Which of the following is/are exception(s) mentioned under Article 16 of the Indian Constitution?

  1. A law by the Parliament or State legislature can provide that a class of employment to an office under state/UT will have residence within that state/UT as a pre-requisite.
  2. State can provide reservation (capped at 10%) to people from economically weaker section in government jobs.

 

Choose the correct answer from the codes provided below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2 
  5.  
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18-Aug-2020 02:41:22 AM

Objective Polity: 26

Which of the following isn't an exception mentioned under Article 15 of the Constitution?

  1. State can make special provision for women and children
  2. State can make special provision for the advancement of socially and educationally backward classes of citizens
  3. State can make special provision for the advancement of economically weaker section of citizens
  4. Parliament can prescribe residence as a condition for certain employment or appointment in a state/UT 
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18-Aug-2020 02:40:41 AM

Objective Polity: 25

A comprehensive anti-discrimination law in India may serve which of the following purpose?

  1. It may increase awareness about various forms of discrimination in India and contribute towards reversal of deep rooted culture of discrimination
  2. It may add to the definitional clarity about discrimination
  3. It may help the existing national commissions to better handle complaints on discrimination
  4. It will eliminate all forms of caste, religion, gender based discrimination from India

Choose the most appropriate answer from the codes provided below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1, 2 and 3 only
  4. 2, 3 and 4 
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18-Aug-2020 02:40:16 AM

Objective Polity: 24

Consider the following statements about Article 15 of the Constitution of India

  1. It prohibits any discrimination on the ground of religion, race, caste, sex or place or birth against any person by State
  2. It only prohibits any disability and liability against citizens, with respect to access to shops, public restaurants, hotels etc.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2 
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18-Aug-2020 02:39:27 AM

Objective Polity: 23

Consider the following statements about immunities enjoyed by the President under Article 361 of the Indian Constitution:

 

  1. President cannot be arrested during his term of office even for an act done by him in his personal capacity
  2. Civil Proceedings against the President can be instituted in a court during his term of office in respect of an act done by him in his personal capacity two months after serving a notice to him in this regard.

 

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2 
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 on 23-Aug-2020 16:52:51 PM
2

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18-Aug-2020 02:38:49 AM

Objective Polity: 22

Consider the following statements about Article 14 of the Constitution of India:

  1. The Article confers Equality Before Law and Equal Protection of Law on citizens, foreigners as well as legal persons within the territory of India
  2. The concept of Equality Before Law in the Indian Constitution is of the American Origin and connotes the equality of treatment under equal circumstances, both in privileges conferred and liabilities imposed by the laws

 

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2 
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18-Aug-2020 02:37:55 AM

Objective Polity: 21

Consider the following statements about citizenship in India Constitution:

  1. Constitution of India provides provisions with respect to acquisition and termination of citizenship and all other matters related to citizenship.
  2. Constitution of India provides that no person shall be a citizen of India who voluntarily acquires the citizenship of any foreign state

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2 
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16-Aug-2020 04:40:04 AM

Objective Question Practice till 4th of October (Prelims 2020)


Dear students, 

From 15th Aug 2020, we started objective questions practice for prelims 2020.  This week we will focus on polity objective questions. In the whole week we will attempt around 100 questions


In this way - I want that you should be able to practice 1,000 good quality questions from all the subjects before 4th of Oct. I will increase the number of daily question as exam gets closer. 


Please leave your answers in the comment.  

I will post answer and solutions for questions once at least 5 students have given their answers

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 on 17-Aug-2020 19:46:23 PM
thanks alot sir

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 on 17-Aug-2020 19:45:38 PM
thanks alot @santosh kumar

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16-Aug-2020 04:37:20 AM

Objective Polity-20

National Register for Citizens, 1951 originally contained list of Indian citizens residing in which of the current States of India?

  1. Assam
  2. Arunachal Pradesh
  3. Nagaland
  4. Manipur
  5. Tripura

Choose the correct answer from the codes provided below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2, 3, 4 and 5 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3 only 
Comments
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 on 18-Aug-2020 02:36:42 AM
Correct Answer: D - Assam in 1951 included the current Nagaland, Arunachal and Meghalaya and Mizoram. (Manipur and Tripura were separate UT).

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 on 17-Aug-2020 12:58:31 PM
A

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16-Aug-2020 04:36:51 AM

Objective Polity-19

Consider the following statements about the issue of dual citizenship in India:

  1. The High Level Committee on Indian Diaspora under chairmanship of L.M. Singhvi had recommended dual citizenship for all PIOs.
  2. Dual citizenship may help towards harnessing goodwill of Indian diaspora
  3. Overseas Citizen of India have dual citizenship (one of India and another of the country they are living in)

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. All 1, 2 and 3 
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 on 18-Aug-2020 02:36:04 AM
Correct Answer: B 1 is wrong. The dual citizenship was recommended for PIOs from only a few countries 2 is correct. 3 is wrong. OCIs are not citizens of India. There is no option of dual citizenship in India.

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 on 16-Aug-2020 17:21:07 PM
b

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16-Aug-2020 04:35:24 AM

Objective Polity-18

Which of the following is true about Overseas Citizenship?

  1. When a person renounces overseas citizenship, their minor child shall also cease to be an Overseas Citizen of India
  2. Minor child whose parent(s) is/are Indian citizens can be registered as OCI

Choose the correct answer from the codes provided below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
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 on 18-Aug-2020 02:34:59 AM
Correct Answer: C - Factual

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16-Aug-2020 04:34:39 AM

Objective Polity - 17

Which of the following can't get Overseas Citizen of India card?

  1. Citizens of Pakistan and Bangladesh
  2. Citizens of United States whose great grand-parents were citizens of Pakistan or Bangladesh.

Choose the correct answer from the codes provided below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2 
Comments
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 on 18-Aug-2020 02:34:24 AM
Correct Answer: C - ­ Earlier, the act provided that any person who is/has been a citizen of Pakistan and BD or any other country which is notified by central government will be ineligible to apply for OCI card. The 2015 amendment, extends the provision to cover persons whose parents/grandparents/great-grandparents were citizens of any of the above countries

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16-Aug-2020 04:34:10 AM

Objective Polity - 16

Which of the following may be considered illegal migrants under the Citizenship Act, 1955?

  1. One who enters India without valid passport or travel documents
  2. One who stays in India beyond the permitted time

Choose the correct answer from the codes given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
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 on 18-Aug-2020 02:33:45 AM
Correct answer: C - The Act also defines illegal migrants and prohibits them from acquiring Indian Citizenship. Defines an illegal migrant as a foreigner who: 1) Enters India without valid passport or travel documents Stays beyond the permitted time.

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16-Aug-2020 04:32:19 AM

Objective Questions Polity - 15

Match the following columns (Article - Subject pairs) with reference to Part 2 of the Constitution:

Article

Subject

    1. Article 5
    1. A person who is ordinarily residing outside India
    1. Article 6
    1. A Person who migrated to Pakistan from India after 1st of March 1947
    1. Article 7
    1. A person who migrated to India from Pakistan
    1. Article 8
    1. A person who is domiciled in India

Choose the most appropriate answer from the codes provided below:

  1. 1-A, 2-B, 3-C, 4-D
  2. 1-B, 2-C, 3-D, 4-A
  3. 1-D, 2-C, 3-B, 4- A
  4. 1-C, 2-D, 3-A, 4-B
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 on 18-Aug-2020 02:33:08 AM
Correct Answer: C - Factual See Lakshmikant or PM Bakshi

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16-Aug-2020 04:31:53 AM

Objective Question Polity - 14

Arrange the following states in chronological order based on the date of their addition as state in Union of India, from first to last:

  1. Gujarat
  2. Nagaland
  3. Manipur
  4. Haryana

Choose the correct answer from the codes provided below:

  1. 1-2-4-3
  2. 1-2-3-4
  3. 2-1-4-3
  4. 2-4-3-1
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 on 18-Aug-2020 02:31:41 AM
Correct Answer: A: Gujarat (1960), Nagaland (1963), Haryana (1966), Manipur (1972

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 on 17-Aug-2020 12:55:54 PM
A

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16-Aug-2020 04:31:23 AM

Objective Question: Polity 13

The state of Telangana was formed by the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014.

Consider the following statements about the act:

  1. The act was passed as per Article 2 of the constitution.
  2. According to article 4 of the Indian Constitution, the laws made under article 2 and article 3 of the Constitution are not to be considered as amendments of the constitution under Article 368.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2 
Comments
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 on 18-Aug-2020 02:30:32 AM
Correct Answer: B - The act was passed under article 3 of the Indian constitution. Article 2 deals with admission of new states into Union of India and establishment of new states. Therefore 1 is wrong. 2 is correct. Therefore, Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act was not a Constitutional Amendment Act.

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 on 17-Aug-2020 00:40:02 AM
B, AP before 2014 was already recognized in "union of states" in article 1. Reorganization of AP was done through article 3

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16-Aug-2020 04:30:58 AM

Objective Questions Polity - 12

Consider the following statements about commissions/committees formed after independence to examine the feasibility of reorganization of states on linguistic basis:

  1. Dhar Commission and JVP committee were formed by Government of India to look into the issue
  2. JVP committee was headed by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
  3. Both Dhar Commission and JVP committee rejected the idea of reorganization of states on the ground of language:

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. All 1, 2 and 3 
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 on 18-Aug-2020 02:29:32 AM
Correct Answer: C - 1 is wrong as JVP committee was formed by Congress (not GoI). 2 is also wrong. JVP committee didn't have any chair. 3 is correct. Dhar Commission in Dec 1948 and JVP committee in April 1949 in their recommendations rejected language as the basis for reorganization of states.

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 on 17-Aug-2020 12:53:55 PM
B

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16-Aug-2020 04:30:32 AM

Objective Questions Polity - 11


Consider the following statements about the bill referred by the President to state legislature under Article 3 of the Indian constitution:

  1. The state legislature must express its views within 14 days
  2. In case of Union territories, there is no requirement of referring the bill to the concerned legislatures

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
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 on 18-Aug-2020 02:28:52 AM
Correct Answer: B - 1 is wrong. The state legislature must express its views within such period as may be specified in the reference or within such further period as the President may allow. 2 is correct.

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 on 17-Aug-2020 00:30:45 AM
B

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15-Aug-2020 02:08:56 AM

Objective Questions Practice till 4th Oct 2020

Dear students, 

From today we have started objective questions practice for prelims 2020.  This week we will focus on polity objective questions. In the whole week we will attempt around 100 questions


Please leave your answers in the comment.  

I will post answer and solutions for questions once at least 5 students have given their answers. 

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 on 15-Aug-2020 11:19:33 AM
Thanx sir

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 on 15-Aug-2020 08:58:42 AM
please provide all questions in only one comment . Thank you

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15-Aug-2020 02:06:08 AM

Objective Questions Polity - 10

The mind of the makers of the Constitution of India is reflected in which of the following?

  1. The Preamble
  2. The Fundamental Rights
  3. The Directive Principles of State Policy
  4. The Fundamental Duties
Comments
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 on 16-Aug-2020 04:28:51 AM
CORRECT ANSWER: A - Factual question - See Lakshmikant

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 on 15-Aug-2020 15:18:16 PM
A.preamble

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15-Aug-2020 02:05:44 AM

Objective Questions Polity-9

Which one of the following objectives is not embodied in the Preamble to the Constitution of India? (Prelims 2017)

  1. Liberty of thought
  2. Economic liberty
  3. Liberty of expression
  4. Liberty of belief
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 on 16-Aug-2020 04:28:05 AM
CORRECT ANSWER: B Liberty of though, expression, belief, faith and worship. Justice - Social, Economic and Political

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 on 15-Aug-2020 11:52:10 AM
B

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15-Aug-2020 02:04:50 AM

Objective Questions Polity-8

Consider the following statements about the Sources of Indian Constitution:

  1. The Emergency provisions in Indian Constitution has been taken from the Weimar Constitution of Germany
  2. The idea of elected Head of State is taken from the US Constitution

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2 
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 on 16-Aug-2020 04:26:49 AM
CORRECT ANSWER: D 1 is wrong. Emergency provisions have been taken from the 1935 GoI Act. Suspension of fundamental rights during emergency has been taken from Weimar Constitution 2 is wrong. The feature of Republic has been taken from France

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 on 15-Aug-2020 15:19:28 PM
c

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15-Aug-2020 02:04:18 AM

Objective Questions Polity - 6

Consider the following statements about bicameralism in India:

  1. Bicameralism in India was introduced for the first time through Government of India Act, 1919
  2. This bicameralism was introduced at the provincial level where the provincial legislative council was replaced by two houses

Which of the above statement(s) is/are incorrect?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2 
Comments
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 on 16-Aug-2020 04:25:41 AM
CORRECT ANSWER: B 1 is correct. It was introduced by GoI Act 1919 2 is wrong. It was introduced at the Central level.

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 on 15-Aug-2020 11:58:13 AM
B

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15-Aug-2020 02:03:55 AM

Objective Questions Polity-5

Which of the following is not true about the Indian Council Act, 1909?

  1. It allowed for non-official majority in the Central legislative assembly
  2. It for the first time provided for the association of Indians with the Central legislative assemblies
  3. Separate electorate for Sikhs, Indian Christians and Anglo Indians was provided for
  4. All of the above 
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 on 16-Aug-2020 04:23:04 AM
Correct Answer D: 1 is wrong. In Central legislative assembly, still the official majority was maintained. 2 is wrong. Association of Indians with Central Legislative assembly was first introduced in 1861. In 1909, association of Indians with Viceroy's executive council happened for the first time 3 is wrong. It happened through Government of India Act 1919

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 on 15-Aug-2020 12:00:37 PM
D

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15-Aug-2020 02:03:24 AM

Objective Questions Polity - 4

In context of British rule in India, the Board of Control was abolished by:

  1. Indian Independence Act of 1947
  2. Government of India Act, 1935
  3. Government of India Act, 1919
  4. Government of India Act, 1858
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 on 16-Aug-2020 04:21:23 AM
Correct Answer D: Both Board of Control and Court of Directors were abolished by Government of India Act 1858

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 on 15-Aug-2020 11:47:49 AM
D

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15-Aug-2020 02:02:42 AM

Objective Questions Polity -3

In context of British rule in India, match the following provisions with the corresponding Act with which it was introduced:

Provisions

Act

    1. Creation of Board of Control
    1. The Charter Act 1853
    1. Attempt to introduce system of open competition for selection of civil servants
    1. The Charter Act 1833
    1. Establishment of Supreme Court at Calcutta
    1. Pitts India Act, 1784
    1. Local representation in the Indian Legislative Council
    1. Regulating Act, 1773

 

Choose the correct answer from the codes provided below:

  1. 1-B, 2-C, 3-A, 4-D
  2. 1-C, 2-B, 3-D, 4-A
  3. 1-B, 2-C, 3-D, 4-A
  4. 1-C, 2-B, 3-A, 4-D 
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 on 16-Aug-2020 04:20:17 AM
Correct Answer: B - Refer Lakshmikant for details

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 on 15-Aug-2020 11:47:06 AM
B

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15-Aug-2020 02:02:12 AM

Objective Questions Polity -2 (Leave your answer in comment)

Through which of the following act was a law member added to the executive Council of Governor General?

  1. Regulating Act 1993
  2. Charter Act 1833
  3. Charter Act 1853
  4. Government of India Act 1958 
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 on 16-Aug-2020 04:19:13 AM
B Is correct. Factual question. Lord Macauley was the first law member

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 on 15-Aug-2020 11:44:12 AM
B

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15-Aug-2020 02:01:24 AM

Polity-1 (Leave your answer in comments)

With respect to British Rule in India, consider the following statements about the Regulating Act 1773:

  1. The act fort the first time distinguished between the commercial and political functions of the Company
  2. It deprived the governor of Bombay and Madras of their legislative power
  3. It designated Governor of Bengal as the Governor-General of Bengal and created an executive Council of four members to assist him

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 2 and 3
  4. None of the above
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 on 16-Aug-2020 04:15:56 AM
Correct Answer: B 1 is wrong. This was done by Pitts India Act 1984 when it created a Board of Control to manage the political affairs and left Court of Directors with only Commercial role 2 is wrong. It was done by Charter Act 1833. 3 is correct.

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 on 15-Aug-2020 11:38:29 AM
B

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12-Aug-2020 16:41:37 PM

10 Objective Questions Every Day for next 50 Days.

Dear Students, 

Considering the upcoming preliminary examination, I will be giving a recess to the Daily Answer Writing Initiative till 4th of Oct 2020. 


Instead of Daily Answer Writing, I will put 10 MCQs Daily for Preliminary exam preparation from tomorrow. 


Keep Practicing. All the best. 

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 on 13-Aug-2020 20:10:19 PM
Thank you sir !

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08-Aug-2020 18:34:21 PM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [8th Aug 2020]: Model Answer

[8th Aug 2020]: Considering the fact that small and marginal farmers consist of 86% of total farmers in the country, suggest some measures to promote resource use efficiency and enhance agri-income among these farmers. [10 marks, 150 words] [#GS3 #Economy]

 

According to Agri-Census 2015-16, 86% of India’s landholding are of small and marginal size (less < 2 hectare). Thus, the development strategy for agriculture development should prioritize the need of small and marginal farmers.

 

Following steps can be taken to promote resource efficiency and agri-income among them:

1)   Consolidation of landholding through formation of more cooperatives and farmer producer organizations

2)   Adoption of technology suitable for small and marginal farmers.

-       Big machineries are not economically viable for small landholdings

-       Promote the development and use of small environment friendly machineries like solar powered pumps, solar powered machineries etc.

3)   Number of Custom Hiring Centres (CHCs) for large machineries need to increase. This will promote more accessibility and competition among CHCs.

4)   Promoting the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based method for financial inclusion, market access etc.

5)   Economize the use of fertilizers and pesticides – Agri-Education, Soil Health Cards etc can play important role in understanding exact need and requirement of the soil.  

6)   Improve irrigation water productivity by use of micro-irrigation technologies.

-       CHCs, Cooperatives etc can allow shared and affordable use of these equipment

7)   Increasing the availability of credits for small landholdings

-       Fintech sector can play a crucial role here

-       New sub-target under RBI’s Priority Sector Lending program for small and marginal farmers.

 

Focused approach towards improving resource use efficiency amongst small & marginal farmers can go a long way in ensuring food security, increasing rural income and tackling poverty in rural India.
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 on 12-Aug-2020 20:15:41 PM
Thank you sir for your reply eagerly waiting for the current affairs classes.

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 on 12-Aug-2020 16:38:23 PM
@Shivangi Seth: It will be starting exactly two weeks after Prelims 2020 (i.e. from 18th of October).. We will launch a pre-cum-mains full program.

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07-Aug-2020 02:20:09 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [6th Aug 2020]: Model Answers

[6th Aug 2020]: The coordinated and concerted efforts by both Centre and the Maoist affected states have led to significant reduction of the Left-Wing Extremism in India. Discuss [15 marks, 250 words] [#GS3 #Internal Security]

 

Emerging with the Naxalbari incidence in 1967, the Left-Wing Extremism (LWE) in India, reached its peak in the 2000-2010 decade. The Maoists had considerable control over 200 districts in the country and the then Prime Minister of India was forced to refer Maoism as “the single biggest internal security challenge ever faced by the country”.

 

The key causes for the rise and strengthening of the LWE in India were Lack of Socio-Economic Development in tribal areas, inadequacies of state police and CRPF, Illegal mining, lack of coordination among states and between centre state and only force/enemy centric approach without focus on development.

 

Learning from these failures, government moved to a two-pronged Counter Insurgency (COIN) approach which combined law & Order initiatives and developmental initiatives:

 

1)Law and Order Initiatives:

                             i.           Deployment of Central Paramilitary Forces under operation Green Hunt in LWE areas, raising of specialized COBRA battalion in states and Police Modernization Schemes have strengthened the security situation.

                           ii.           Strengthening of intelligence networks and Monitoring & Coordination mechanisms by setting up of Multi-agency centers at both central and state levels.

                          iii.           SAMADHAN a new security operation doctrine was launched in 2017 which focuses on the choking of finances, better training and use of advanced technology like drones.

                          iv.           Strengthening of UAPA, 1967 through amendments and banning of CPI (Maoist) also weakened Maoist movement in the country.

 

2)    Development and Population Centric Approach

i)        Focusing on the special developmental needs of LWE districts through Special Central Assistance (SCA) scheme and Aspirational districts initiatives. Infrastructure development in the form of more schools, hospitals, telecom networks etc. have been seen in these districts

ii)      Surrender & Rehabilitation Schemes gave opportunities to Maoist cadres to join the mainstream.

iii)     Forest Rights Act, 2006, MGNREGA, MSP for Minor Forest Produce etc -> alleviated socio-economic stress

iv)     All India Radio and Doordarshan now have more programs in local tribal languages

 

These initiatives have led to substantial decrease in geographical range and violence related to LWE in the country. But the government needs to be highly vigilant and ensure that counter-insurgency operations are continued with same intensity and developmental activities are further strengthened to ensure elimination of Maoism from India.
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06-Aug-2020 13:27:13 PM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [6th Aug 2020]

The coordinated and concerted efforts by both Centre and the Maoist affected states have led to significant reduction of the Left Wing Extremism in India. Discuss [15 marks, 250 words] [#GS3 #Internal Security]

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06-Aug-2020 05:07:41 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [5th Aug 2020]: Model Answer

Ques: [Model Answer]: Seismic shadow zone on the surface of earth shows that earth's core is composed of heavy materials. Explain. (10 marks, 150 words) [#GS1 #Geography]


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06-Aug-2020 04:29:48 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [4th Aug 2020]

[4th Aug 2020] [Model Answer]: "Climate Change can be fought using carbon tax but only so long as its burden is distributed equitably among various nations" Discuss [10 marks, 150 words] [#GS3 #EB&CC]

According to a recent IPCC report, the global carbon emissions need to fall by 45% from 2010 levels by 2030 and become net zero by 2050 to prevent irreversible damages to environment. 

Carbon tax can play an important role in achieving these targets. It is a form of carbon pricing in which extra cost is imposed on Greenhouse gas emitting energy sources. (e.g. fuel cess on coal in India).  

It is considered better than ‘Cap and Trade’ mechanism as it is very simple to impose, doesn’t involve a problem of baseline and can be easily understood. 

However, imposition of carbon tax in different countries have to be streamlined to achieve equity. Else, the countries imposing carbon tax would lose investments to countries not imposing carbon tax. 

Further, a uniform global carbon tax regime cannot compensate for historical contributions, i.e. it will violate the Common but Differentiated Responsibility (CBDR) principle. This issue can be resolved by making a part carbon tax collection from developed countries available to developing and under-developed countries for energy transition investments. 

Thus, a uniform global carbon tax regime altered to follow the CBDR principle can become a potent tool in the fight against the global climate change.

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03-Aug-2020 08:26:16 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [3rd Aug 2020]

Although the Indian National Army (INA) failed to achieve its goal, it made a significant impact on the freedom struggle. Discuss. (10 marks, 150 words) [#GS1 #History]

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02-Aug-2020 22:57:27 PM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [1st Aug 2020]: Model Answer


Flood paralyzes a large geographical area and threatens lives, livelihood and infrastructure. Therefore, a flood situation comes as a big test for district administration. The given case depicts a situation where my duty of District Collector has to be performed while dealing with dubious opposition. Extra care is needed to ensure that I don’t take any irrational or rash step which hampers the ongoing flood relief and delays the unblocking of highways.

 

Facts given:

Flood in 40% area of the district

Relief operation is going on

Local politician is trying to malign the image of the administration

Blockage of Highway

Media Coverage

State secretariat’s question of the handling of the situation

 

Value Involved

1)    Fiduciary Responsibility

2)    Empathy, Welfarism

3)    Leadership

4)    Positive Attitude

 

Stakeholders Involved

1)    District Collector and Administration

2)    People Affected by floods

3)    The Local Politicians

4)    Media

5)    General Public (taxpayers)

 

Different Issues Involved in the Case

1)    Relief operations getting hampered: Not allowing relief operations to get hampered should be the highest priority of the district collector both as a government official and as a human being

2)    Blocked National Highway is another big issue. National Highways are the lifeline of any country and its blocking has huge social, economic and political consequences

3)    Concerns raised by Media and the State Secretariat: Negative perception about the handling of the situation can hamper the functioning of district administration

 

Course of Action

1)    Ensuring Effective Relief Operations:

-    Making food, medical care, shelter etc available for every affected person

-    Relief Operations shouldn’t only be efficient and transparent but also sensitive and compassionate

-    Taking action against anyone hampering relief activities

 

2)    Getting National Highway Unblocked

-    Immediate talks should be initiative with the local politician blocking the highway. It should be conveyed to them that the relief contracts were given in a very transparent manner. Further the issues raised by them should be taken into consideration and looked into in future.

-    Emotional Intelligence will play a very important role here in persuading the politician and his supporters

-    If nothing works, then legal measures and help of police force should be taken to get the highway cleared.

 

3)    Conveying Correct Information to Media

-    Highlight the transparent and efficient way in which relief operation is being carried out. The right message to media will be crucial for ensuring positive image of administration.

4)    State secretariat should be taken in loop about the immediate steps being taken and how effectively and efficiently the relief operations are continuing. In long run, a detailed report should also be submitted explaining all the issues and concerns and how these concerns were handled.

 

                    An emergency situation, specially floods, require an extremely responsible and sensible approach from the administration. The goal of the whole exercise is to ensure that the relief reaches to each flood victim in a timely, effective and compassionate manner.

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02-Aug-2020 08:26:59 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [1st Aug 2020]

You are the District Collector of a district facing recurring floods. You are thus responsible for providing relief material to all the affected people. Like every year, during this year’s monsoon too, more than 40% area of the district is flooded up to dangerous level. As a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) you had floated tenders and awarded contracts for the supply of relief material in fair and transparent manner well in advance. 

A group of people, led by a local political leader, are making irrational demands from the administration. One day, the politician along with his followers decides to stage a sit-in on the national highway going through your area. The moment media started covering the news you got a call from your seniors at the State Secretariat questioning your handling of the relief operations.

However, you suspect that the real motive of the politician is to jeopardize relief efforts and to build general opinion against your efficiency, because the contracts were not awarded to his people.

 

a) Elaborate the different issues that are involved in the case.

 

b) What will be your course of action? Justify

 

[20 marks, 300-350 words] [#GS4 #CaseStudy]

 

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31-Jul-2020 16:33:36 PM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [31st July 2020]: Model Answer

"Deficit monetization could be a risky affair for the economy to handle in the current scenario" Critically Analyze [15 marks, 250 words] [#GS3 #Economy]

 

The lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted the economic activities in the country. This in turn has had a dilapidating influence of government’s revenue. In these circumstances of increased fiscal deficit, deficit monetization is being suggested as an option to alleviate the current economic crisis.

 

Deficit monetization refers to RBI printing more money i.e. RBI buying government’s securities from primary market. The Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act prohibits this in normal circumstances as it is associated with a number of disadvantages and could be risky for the economy:

1)    Excess supply of money may trigger inflation.

2)    It could lead to depreciation of Rupee which would be harmful for an energy importing country like India

3)    Easy supply of money may also lead to unproductive spending by government.

4)    It also impacts credibility of the government as the government is seen as not being able to take care of its fiscal needs at its own

5)    It reduces RBI’s control over money supply and makes RBI’s monetary policy subordinate to financial policy of the government.

 

At the same time, supporters of deficit monetization argue that it could lead to following advantages:

1)    Provide immediate funds to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic

2)    Reduce debt to GDP ratio of the government. Increase in debt to GDP ratio may negatively impact Credit Rating which in turn may push away investments and depreciate Rupee.

3)    It could also control rising bond yield which is making the government’s borrowing expensive.

 

Looking at both advantages and disadvantages, it is clear the deficit monetization should be a measure of last resort. If government is able to borrow money through bonds and if the bond yields are not unsustainably high, it should continue borrowing from market.

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30-Jul-2020 23:51:10 PM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [31st July 2020]

"Deficit monetization could be a risky affair for the economy to handle in the current scenario" Critically Analyze [15 marks, 250 words] [#GS3 #Economy]

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30-Jul-2020 17:20:01 PM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [30th July]

Explain why the caste system in India is becoming more visible for the backward castes, while at the same time less visible for upper castes [10 marks, 150 words] [10 marks, 150 words]

 

Caste system is an ancient code of social stratification whose origin lies in the Varna System. It is an unequal, discriminatory system under which different castes and subcastes are given different social status.

 

In recent decades the caste identity has become more visible for the backward castes because:

1)    Caste identity acts as a collective asset in facing the unequal competition from upper castes with better social and educational status.

2)    They continue to suffer various caste based discrimination, and hence seek justice and compensation on the basis of castes.

3)    Policies of reservation and other affirmative actions have acted as a lifeline for them and it is available on the basis of caste.

4)    Political mobilization by various political parties in the name of caste.  

 

But, at the same time, the caste identity is becoming less and less visible for upper castes as:

1)    Initial access to education, jobs, economic resources etc have provided them quick development opportunities.

2)    As the privileges got consolidated in 2nd and 3rd generations, the upper caste group started believing that caste hasn’t played a role in this advancement.

3)    Upper castes have moved more to urban areas (better education, opportunities etc). Urban areas provide comparably less social advantage compared to rural areas for upper castes.

 

The juxtaposition of two groups – a seemingly casteless upper caste group and an apparently caste-defined lower caste group – is one of the central aspects of the institution of caste in the present times.

 

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 on 31-Jul-2020 22:16:02 PM
Thanks sir

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27-Jul-2020 22:16:47 PM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [27th July]: Question and Model Answer

[Question 15, 27th July, 2020] Model Answer

Discuss the key factors behind increasing vulnerability of Indian cities to Urban Floods. What steps should be taken to reduce the risk of this disaster? [15 marks, 250 words]

Recent instances of floods such as the one in Mumbai in 2005 or in Chennai in 2015 illustrates the increasingly vulnerability of Indian cities to this disaster. A complex set of factors have worked together to deteriorate the condition of our cities and increase their susceptibility to this devastation.  These include:

a)    Unplanned Development – increased concretization of city roadsfilling up of ponds and lakesencroachment of flood plains etc. have reduced the water seepage & sinkage and blocked the flow of water.

b)    Improper and Inadequate Drainage system, poor desilting and blockage of drains due to poor disposal of solid waste makes our cities ill prepared to face the increased flow of water during rainy season.

c)    Global Warming and Climate change has made the rainfall very variable leading to unusually heavy rainfalls sometimes causing floods.

d)    Social and religious factors such as dumping of religious symbols, dead bodies etc. in rivers lead to blocking of rivers and this floods the cities during Monsoon.

e)    Economic factors such as high poverty and political economy have made it difficult to clear flood plains of the illegal encroachment by slum dwellers or other developers

f)     Absence of political will towards the issue has led to paucity of funds which turn has impacted the infrastructure development and renovation. It has also delayed river water sharing agreements between India-Bangladesh and India-China.

-      These urban floods have not only led to death and devastation, but have also contributed to destruction of infrastructure such as telecommunication lines, roads, railways etc. They also increase the chances of water pollution and increase the probability of disease epidemic.

Way forward

-        Urban planning should keep in mind the geological and hydrological cycles by ensuring non-encroachment of flood plains, restoration of lakes and bonds, and allowing infiltration of water into the ground.

-        Improvement of drainage system – maintenance, desilting of existing drains, creation of alternate pathways, proper disposal of solid waste etc.

-        Change in social attitude of Common Citizen will go a long way in controlling urban floods – reduce solid waste, promote environment friendly religious practices.

-        Disaster preparedness: Even after all proper steps, nature may cause havoc and cause floods, therefore a proper disaster management plan should be prepared by the ULBs to be battle ready in emergency situations. Fresh Hazard profiles should be created for the cities based on the historic as well as recent flood vulnerabilities.

 

Since Urban areas are centers of economic activities, when Urban area is affected, all the surrounding semi-urban and rural areas also get indirectly impacted. Thus, it is important that more political will, investment and awareness is generated regarding urban floods.

 

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26-Jul-2020 09:15:01 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [26th July 2020]

Analyse the nature and characteristics of major popular uprisings that took place in various parts of India during the 19th century. [15 marks, 250 words]

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 on 26-Jul-2020 12:14:17 PM
Thanx sir

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23-Jul-2020 18:16:47 PM

Answer Writing Practice: 23rd July 2020 - Model Answer

[23rd July 2020][Ques-11]: "Allowing private players to operate passenger trains in India will negatively hamper the inclusive and welfare approach of the Railways" Critically Analyse [10 marks, 150 words]

Indian Railways have recently invited Request for Qualifications (RFQ) proposals for operation of passenger train services on 109 routes with 151 modern trains.

Key Objectives of the Initiative

  • Investment
  • Modern Technology
  • Better Services
    • Reduce Demand Supply Gap
    • Timelineness
    • Imporved Comfort and Safety
  • Job Creation

But, this initiative towards increasing the participation of private sector is facing criticism on the following grounds: 
1) Profit Motive of private players will hamper inclusive and welfare approach of Indian Railways 
2) Higher Fares may make private trains unsuitable for the poor and vulnerable 
3) Private players may only be interested in running trains on busy and congested routes, and may ignore the remote and unserved areas. 

But a careful analysis would negate the above concerns: 
1) Operation by both public and private sector would promote competition and should hinder unfair fare increase.
2) More investment would mean more trains which would reduce demand supply deficit. 
3) Efficient models of operations by private players may actually reduce cost of operations and provide better services. 

Therefore, a liberalization of train services (not complete privatization) may actually be more inclusive and welfare oriented. 

Government of India should also work towards setting up of an independent regulator and a route dispersal guideline (like that of airways sector). These would make operation of trains by private players more attractive and would make the services more inclusive for passengers

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23-Jul-2020 09:59:31 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [23rd July 2020]

[23rd July 2020][Ques-11]: "Allowing private players to operate passenger trains in India will negatively hamper the inclusive and welfare approach of the Indian Railways" Critically Analyse [10 marks, 150 words][#GS3 #Economy]

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22-Jul-2020 23:58:39 PM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [22nd July 2020]: Model Answer

Patriarchy is a social institution marked by the supremacy of the male members. Fathers hold power over the families in general and male members exercise authority over female through property rights, social privileges and moral authority.

 

Although it affects all women in one way or another, its impact varies from place to place and class to class; and largely depends upon the difference in the nature of economic activities and the extent of traditional culture. In some way, its impact on urban and rural women is similar, while in other ways it's different. 

 

• In rural areas, women generally live in joint families and are subjected to multiple structures of dominations. In city-based nuclear families, such domination is less acute.

• Many traditional patriarchal norms like dowry, child marriage, preference to male heir etc. are more prevalent in rural society compared to urban India.

• Patriarchy majorly works through the caste system in rural societies while in urban society, class norms dominate. 

• Rural to urban migration of the male population leads to changes in the roles and responsibilities of women. They have to manage the household as well as agricultural activities. Yet they don’t assume the role of the head of the families in villages.

• Rural women rarely stay at home but they are principally engaged in unpaid labour (household as well as agricultural works). In cities, one finds middle-class women either stay at home or are engaged in all domains of work. However, such activities are paid employments.

• In villages, there is a trend of feminisation of agriculture while in the cities, the women tend to be segmented in certain service sector jobs more often.

 

However, as the cities generally provide better education, less societal control and paid employment, women get more options for social mobility and empowerment. 

 

As the world gets more connected, various global feminist movements also make a direct impact in the cities first. Yet, it’s a long way to go to abolish completely the institution of patriarchy which is as old as human society.

 

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22-Jul-2020 12:32:53 PM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [22nd July 2020]

What do you understand by patriarchy? Explain the difference in the manner in which it influences the rural and urban women respectively. [10 marks, 150 words] [#GS1 #Society]

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22-Jul-2020 12:31:16 PM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [21st July 2020]: Model Answer

"Shared Strategic concerns, deeper people-to-people contacts, and economic ties are driving the Indo-Australia cooperation" Elaborate [10 marks, 150 words] [#GS2 #IR]

 

Later half of the 20th century saw emergence of an indifference and sometimes hostility in Indo-Australian relations. This was mostly due to cold war politicsIndia’s Nuclear ambitions and absence of economic content in the bilateral ties.

 

This has changed over the last decade and the relations between the two countries has been intensifying mostly because of the following factors:

1)    Strategic Reasons – China’s aggressive & assertive foreign policy; and vacillation of Trump led USA’s commitment to Indo-Pacific, have left middle powers like India and Australia worried. This has brought them closer which is clearly manifested in the recent upgradation of ties to Comprehensive Strategic PartnershipIncreased military exercises (e.g. AUSINDEX in 2019), upgradation of 2+2 dialogue to ministerial level, finalization of Mutual logistic support agreement and most importantly the beginning of Quad Security Dialogue.

 

2)    Increased People to People Contact: Around 3% (more than 7,00,000) of Australia’s population is of Indian origin, more and more students from India are going to USA for higher studies, Tourism and cultural contacts have also enhanced.

 

3)    Economic Cooperation – Though, the current bilateral trade (around $20 billion) is way below potential, but both the countries see a bright economic future with each other. India Economy Strategy, 2035 – a report recently published by Australia have identified India as economic partner with highest potential in coming decades. The recent decision to resume discussions on Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement also reflects the same

 

The successful virtual summit in June 2020 was a manifestation of this strengthening of relations b/w the two countries. Dedicated attention and political leadership will take the bilateral ties to the next level.


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21-Jul-2020 11:45:51 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [21st July 2020]

"Shared Strategic concerns, deeper people-to-people contacts and economic ties are driving the Indo-Australia cooperation" Elaborate [10 marks, 150 words]

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20-Jul-2020 05:31:55 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [19th July 2020]: Model Answer

[Model Answer] What is environmental nanotechnology? Discuss with suitable examples [10 marks, 150 words]
Environmental nanotechnology refers to use of nanotech products, processes and applications for environmental and climate protection.
It may contribute by cleaning the pollutants, reducing the pollutants, making our devices more efficient and reducing cost of green technologies.

Examples of environmental nanotechnology:

  • Ensuring Potable Drinking Water Use of Graphene based water filters are expected to increase the accessibility of clean drinking water in coming future
  • Removing pollutants from water
    • Cleaning up organic chemicals polluting ground water 
      Iron nanoparticles can be used to effectively clean-up organic solvents that are polluting the ground water. The nanoparticles disperse throughout the water and decompose the organic solvents in place. This method is more effective and costs significantly less than treatment methods that require the water to be pumped out of ground.
    • Cleaning up of oil spills 
      Using photocatalytic cooper tungsten oxide nanoparticles to break down oil into bio-degradable compounds.
  • Generating Less pollution during manufacturing of materials 
    E.g. Use of silver nano particles as catalysts can significantly reduce the polluting by products in the process used to manufacture propylene oxide.
  • Producing solar cells that generate electricity at competitive cost 
    E.g. Silicon nanowires embedded in a polymer result in low cost but high efficiency solar cells.
  • Increasing the electricity generated by windmills 
    E.g. use of carbon nanotubes in windmill blades results in stronger and lower weight windmill blades. This helps in more amount of electricity generated by each windmill.
  • Reducing cost of fuel cells 
    Changing the spacing of platinum atom in fuel cells increases the catalytic ability of the platinum. This allows the fuel cells to function with 80% less platinum, significantly reducing the cost of the fuel cells.


Conclusion: Nanotechnology is thus brimming with potential solutions for various environmental and climate change related issues being faced by India. It’s high time that India’s Mission on Nano Science and Technology is restructured to include R&D in the field of environment as one of its key goals.

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19-Jul-2020 06:13:10 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [19th July 2020]

 

Dear Students, 

Please find below the question for daily answer writing practice for today

 

Q7. What is environmental nanotechnology? Discuss with suitable examples [10 marks, 150 words]

 

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19-Jul-2020 06:11:56 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [17th July 2020]: Model Answer

A Constitution is a legal document that describes the basic principles of the state, the structures and processes of government and the fundamental rights of citizens in a higher law that cannot be unilaterally changed by an ordinary legislative act. Indian courts have viewed the Constitution as not merely an amalgam of parchment guarantees against state excesses, but as a document embodying a vision of a fairer, more inclusive and more progressive society.

A Transformational Constitution is one which guides the nation towards a resplendent future. It aims at transformation of the society for the better by understanding the spirit behind the constitutionalism and not merely the letters. It organically evolves with the society as an organic documents where citizens are not treated as subject but as agents.

Over the last few years, India has witnessed significant changes in its substantive law, ushered in by Indian Judiciary led by the Supreme Court rulings involving re-interpretations of the Constitution. Prominent examples in this regard include the Harsh Mander case that decriminalised begging, the NALSA judgment, which recognised the rights of the third gender; the Navtej Singh Johar case, which saw an end to decades of criminalisation of homosexuality; the decriminalisation of adultery; and even the Sabarimala judgment of 2018. The Supreme Court’s role as the custodian and interpreter of the Constitution has enabled it to bring about these changes, combined with the growing recognition of the Indian Constitution as a transformative, rather than rigid, document.

In the Harsh Mander vs Union of India, the Delhi High Court decriminalized begging, by declaring unconstitutional several provisions of the Anti-Beggary Act – a colonial relic, on the ground of their inconsistency with Article 14 (the equality clause); Article 19(1)(a) (the free speech clause) and Article 21 (life and personal liberty clause) of the Indian Constitution.

In the Navtej Singh Johar vs Union of India, the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code which criminalized voluntary sexual intercourse amongst same-sex individuals. In so doing, the Court viewed the Constitution as a “great social document, almost revolutionary in its aim of transforming a medieval, hierarchical society into a modern, egalitarian democracy.”

In the Sabrimala case, the Supreme Court struck down a prohibition on the entry of women of menstruating age in the Sabarimala temple in Kerala. One judge in the majority, Justice D.Y. Chandrachud, offered a vision of the Constitution as being transformative in character, in setting up independent institutions of governance and granting the promise of full citizenship to those hitherto deprived and marginalized.

All these above transformational and progressive interpretation of the constitution establishes the notion that the Indian Constitution is a not conservative document (aimed only at facilitating transference of power), but tries to fundamentally transform the social and legal structures. Secondly, the Constitution should be viewed as embodying the hopes and aspirations of the society in which it was framed. 

This vision of the constitution being a transformative document finds concrete expression in two ways. First, by the fact that it transformed the relationship between the individual and state from one between colonial rulers and their subjects to citizens of a republic with full panoply of civil and political rights. And second, by the fact that the Constitution enabled the reconstruction of State and society itself transforming the governance in the country.

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17-Jul-2020 06:49:33 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [17th July 2020]

Dear Students,
Please find below the question for daily answer writing practice for today

Q5. What do you understand by a transformational constitution? Explain how the recent judgments by the Indian Judiciary establish the Indian Constitution as a transformational document. [15 marks, 250 words]

Model Answer will be posted after 8 PM today.

#GS2 #Polity

 

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17-Jul-2020 06:41:08 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [16th July 2020]: Model Answer

[16th July 2020]: “Gautama Buddha was a social reformer, a revolutionary who stood against social discrimination and favoured equality for all” Critically Analyse [15 marks, 250 words]

In the background of increased complexities of Vedic rituals, social discrimination on grounds of Varna and Jati, Urbanization and emergence of new social groups like Sethis and Gahpatis, the sixth century BCE saw the emergence of many heterodox sects like Buddhism, Jainism, Ajivikas etc.

Among these, the key ideas of Buddhism, and the teachings of its founder- Gautama Buddha were seen as promoting social equality.

  • The Buddhist Sangha allowed people from lower social orders to become monks, participate in studies and achieve salvation. Varna or Jati were irrelevant.
  • The Buddhist monks accepted food from everyone, regardless of class or caste
  • The Pali Canon also reversed the Brahmanical order of rank and gave Kshatriyas higher status than that of Brahmans
  • The position of women under Buddhism was also better. They could become nuns, participate in studies and work towards achievement of salvation.

Thus, Buddha was seen as a revolutionary and a great social reformer. But at the same time, deeper analysis of Buddhist text presents existence of several forms of social discrimination in Buddhism.

  • Slaves, debtors, serving soldiers etc were not allowed to join Sanghas.
  • Large number of Monks in Sanghas were from ‘Uchcha Kula’ i.e. Brahmins or Kshatriyas
  • Followers of Buddha also had a notion of high and low status. Vinaya Pitaka mentions that occupations like accounting, writing etc were considered high occupations whereas leather works, tailor, reed making etc were considered low occupation.
  • Women were not given complete equality. Initial unwillingness of Buddha to allow women to join Sanghas, extra condition and restriction imposed on nuns, requirement of taking birth in next life as male to achieve salvation etc. indicated clear discrimination against women.

All these indicate that Buddhism was not completely egalitarian and some discrimination on the basis of background, occupation or gender existed.
But, a tradition’s progressiveness should be judged by the standards of its own time. By the standard of 5th-6th century BCE, Buddha was for sure a great social reformer and revolutionary who provided path of salvation to all the sections of society.

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16-Jul-2020 06:50:23 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice (Question 19): 16th July

Dear Students, 

Please find below the question for daily answer writing practice for today [16th July]

[16th July 2020][Ques-19]: “Gautama Buddha was a social reformer, a revolutionary who stood against social discrimination and favoured equality for all” Critically Analyse [15 marks, 250 words]

Source to Study: Culture Booklet - 5 

Model Answer would be posted after 9 pm today.

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16-Jul-2020 06:39:44 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [15th July 2020]: Model Answer

What were the causes of the origin of the heterodox sects in the sixth century BC? [10 marks, 150 words]

The 6th century BCE was an important stage in Indian history as far as development of new religions are concerned. The period saw the beginning of many heterodox sects including Buddhism, Jainism and Ajivikas.

Key factors behind the rise of these sects:

  • Religious Factors:
    • Growing rigidities of Vedic religion; complex and elaborate Vedic rituals; and use of Sanskrit language had created a disconnect with common masses.
    • Upnishadic thoughts, though devoid of rituals, turned out to be too abstract for common masses.
  • Socio-Economic Causes:
    • Agricultural economy, increase in trade and commerce, urbanization had led to emergence of rich Gahapatis, Setthis and other Vaishya groups who wanted better social status than the Varna system.
    • Agriculture depended on animals and hence animal sacrifice was incompatible with new economy.
  • Political Factors::
    • Kshatriya as well as non-Kshatriya rulers who strengthened their political position also wanted social status higher or equivalent to Brahmans.


All these led to growing opposition of Brahmanical tradition and greater acceptance of heterodox religions which were more egalitarian with simple moral principles and manageable rituals. Use of common language and Royal patronage also contributed to their smooth expansion.

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15-Jul-2020 00:53:16 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice (Question 15): 15th July

Dear Students, 

Please find below the question for daily answer writing practice for today [15th July]

[15th July 2020]: Ques-18: What were the causes of the origin of the heterodox sects in the sixth century BC? [10 marks, 150 words] [Culture: GS1]

Source to Study: Culture Booklet - 5 

Model Answer would be posted at 9 pm (15th July)

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14-Jul-2020 22:36:11 PM

Daily Answer Writing Practice [14th July 2020]: Model Answer

[14th July 2020]:Model Answer: "India and Australia need to build a series of bilateral and minilateral platforms for regional security cooperation to limit the dangers of the growing geopolitical imbalance in the Indo-Pacific" Discuss [12.5 marks, 200 words][GS2 International Relations]

China’s aggression and its assertive policies in the Indo-Pacific have emerged as a key security challenge for both India and Australia. Further, the anxieties about USA’s strategic commitment to Indo-Pacific under the Trump administration have left most of the regional powers worried.

In these circumstances, foreign policy experts like C Raja Mohan suggest that India and Australia should explore a series of bilateral and minilateral security platforms.

  • Indonesian Archipelago are strategically located on the sea-lanes connecting Indian and Pacific Oceans. Since, Indonesia also have security threats from China, a trilateral maritime cooperation between India-Australia and Indonesia should be explored.
  • Quad Security Dialogue need to be expanded at operational level with concrete follow up steps.
  • France and United Kingdom can be other natural partners in the region.
    • France is a resident power in the region and have shown willingness to cooperate. India should endorse this move.
    • United Kingdom is already leading the Five Power Defence Agreement (PFDA) between UK, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore. India should explore maritime cooperation with PFDA.
    •  
  • Finally, inclusion of Australia in Malabar exercise is a logical step to enhance regional security and should not be delayed.


These strategic regional cooperation can compensate for the lack of military capabilities of both India and Australia beyond their regional waters and should be actively pursued.

223 Words

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13-Jul-2020 21:58:44 PM

Daily Answer Writing Practice (Ques-17) [14th July 2020]

Dear Students, 
Please find below the question for daily answer writing practice for tomorrow

[14th July 2020]: "India and Australia needs to build a series of bilateral and multilateral platforms for regional security cooperation to limit the dangers of the growing geopolitical imbalance in the Indo-Pacific" Discuss [12.5 marks, 200 words][GS2 International Relations]

Will share a model answer at 9 pm, 14th July 2020

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13-Jul-2020 02:32:54 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice: Ques: 16 [13th July 2020]

[13th July 2020]: Discuss various theories explaining formation of the Moon. How has recent findings by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) modified our understanding about the origin of the Moon? (15 marks, 250 words) [GS1 - Geography]

Moon, around 1/4th the size of earth and orbiting 3.8 lakh kms away from it, is it’s only natural satellite. The question about how Moon was formed has intrigued scientists for long and over the years, many different theories have been proposed:

  • In 1838, George Darwin suggested that initially both Earth and Moon were a single body, which over the period took a dumbbell shape and separated into two different bodies.
  • Some scientists also suggest that depression which is currently filled by the Pacific Ocean may have been the source of material from which Moon has been formed.
  • But, the Big Splat theory is the most popular one. Here, Scientists suggest that around 4.5 billion years ago, when Earth was just formed, a body of around same size of that of Mars collided with Earth and separated a big mass from it. This mass kept revolving around Earth and formed Moon around 4.4 billion years ago. This is also supported by the fact that the chemical composition of Moon is similar to that of Earth.


Recent Findings of NASA and its implications: The Miniature Radio-Frequency (Mini-RF) detector of the NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter have recently found that the sub-surface of the Moon (2-5 kms) may have much higher concentration of metals (especially Iron and Titanium oxides) than what was previously thought. This could mean that Moon may have been formed of material much deeper from the surface of Earth. Moreover, it indicates that Moon’s Molten surface cooled much more gradually.

Above findings clearly indicate that our understanding of the origin of Moon and its relationship with earth is incomplete and a lot of research still needs to happen in future.

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13-Jul-2020 01:15:32 AM

Prelims Facts: EB&CC: THE GREEN CARPENTER BEE (XYLOCOPA AERETA)

  • Why in news?

    • Australian Bushfires have significantly increased the risk of local extinction of the Green Carpenter Bee species.

    Details of the Bee

    • The green carpenter bee (Xylocopa aerata) is an iconic, beautiful native species described as a ‘jewel of nature’ for its metallic green and gold coloring. Carpenter bees are so named because they excavate their own nests in wood, as opposed to using existing holes.
    • It has a body length of 2 cm and is amongst the largest native Bees in Southern Australia.
    • It is a buzz pollinating species. Buzz pollinators are specialist bees that vibrate the pollen out of the flowers of buzz-pollinated plants. Many native plants of southern Australia like guinea flowers, velvet bushes, Senna, fringe, chocolate and flax lilies, rely completely on buzz-pollinating bees for seed production. Introduced honey bees don't pollinate these plants.
    • It is a buzz pollinating species. Buzz pollinators are specialist bees that vibrate the pollen out of the flowers of buzz-pollinated plants. Many native plants of southern Australia like guinea flowers, velvet bushes, Senna, fringe, chocolate and flax lilies, rely completely on buzz-pollinating bees for seed production. Introduced honey bees don't pollinate these plants.

    Why bushfires have made them vulnerable to extinction?

    • the species uses dead wood for nesting, which burns easily
    • if the nest burns before the offspring matures in late summer, the adult female might fly away but won’t live long enough to reproduce again, anthe bees need floral resources throughout the year

     

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11-Jul-2020 02:02:39 AM

Dharma Chakra Day

  • Why in news?

    • President Ram Nath Kovind inaugurated the Dharma Chakra Day from Rashtrapati Bhavan (July 2020)

    Details

    • The International Buddhist Confederation (IBC), under the aegis of Union Ministry of Culture, is celebrating Asaadh Poornima as Dharma Chakra Day.
    • The day commemorates Buddha's first sermon to his first five ascetic disciples at the Deer Park, in the present day Sarnath near Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.
    • The day is also celebrated by Buddhists all over the world as the day of Dharma Chakra Parvattan or "Turning of the Wheel of Dharma".
    • The rainy season retreat (Varsha Vass) of Buddhist monks and nuns also start with this day.
    • The day is also marked as Guru Purnima (by both Hindus and Buddhists) as a day to mark reverence to their gurus.
      In Hinduism, the day is dedicated to Maharshi Ved Vyas.
    •  The day is celebrated on first full moon day of the month of Asadh as per Hindu Calender.

    Key Events

    • PM Modi's special video address
    • special address by PM of Mongolia.
      A valuable Buddhist manuscript of Indian origin preserved in Mongolia for centuries was also presented to President of India.

     

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10-Jul-2020 23:22:48 PM

ADENOVIRUS COVID-19 VACCINE

-        Why in news?

o   The first COVID-19 vaccine to reach phase-1 clinical trial has been found to be safe, well tolerated, and able to generate immune response against SARS-COV-2 in humans: Lancet (May 2020) 

o   In July 2020, it has reached the Phase-3 of the trial

 

-        About the Vaccine

o   The vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, uses the common cold virus (adenovirus) that causes infection in Chimpanzees. It has been genetically altered so that it doesn't grow once injected. The construct carries the genetic material of the novel Coronavirus that makes the spike protein.

·       Note: the spike protein is found on the surface of the virus and plays a crucial role in binding to specific human receptors found on cell surfaces and entering the cells.

o   Spike protein will help the body recognize it and make antibodies against the spike protein. The antibodies produced will help mount an immune response and prevent the virus from entering the human cells and causing an infection.

o   The vaccine has been developed by the Oxford University in collaboration with pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca.

o   In past, the ChAdOx1 vaccine technology has been used to produce candidate vaccine against a number of pathogens including Flu, Chikungunya, Zika and another Coronavirus - MERS.

 

-        A phase-1 trial demonstrated that a single dose of the new adenovirus type 5 vectored COVID-19 (Ad5-nCoV) vaccine produces virus specific anti bodies and T-cells in 14 days. 

o   The trial was carried out on 108 participants aged 18-60 in Wuhan, China.

o   This is the first covid-19 vaccine to be tested on humans.

 

By July 2020, it had reached Phase-3 trial


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09-Jul-2020 05:27:42 AM

India-Australia Relations

-        Why in news?

§  India and Australia held the first virtual Summit in June 2020.

 

-        Example questions:

§  "Despite differences that remain, there is clear evidence of growing strategic convergence between India and Australia in the realm of security" Discuss [10 marks, 150 words] 

§  Shared Strategic concerns, deeper people-to-people contacts and economic ties are driving the Indo-Australia cooperation. Elaborate [10 marks, 150 words]

§  "India and Australia needs to build a series of bilateral and minilateral platforms for regional security cooperation to limit the dangers of the growing geopolitical imbalance in the Indo-Pacific" Discuss [10 marks, 150 words]

§  To what extent the use of soft power like sports, cultural exchange, people to people contact help in enhancing India-Australia cooperation? Discuss with suitable examples [12.5 marks, 200 words]

 

-        Background

§  Australia has loomed large in modern India's consciousness - as the land of cricket champions. But, there was little else binding the two nations during the 20th century. This was despite the common political values and the shared English language.

 

-        Four Deep Structural impediments which prevented India-Australia Cooperation

§  Logic of Cold War: Australia was among USA's and Britain's closest allies, while India had opted for non-alignment.

§  Pakistan Factor: Here again, Cold War imperatives meant that Australia sided with Pakistan- a member of Anglo-American alliances - rather than India.

§  India's Nuclear status outside NPT led to Australia taking a particularly strong stand against India specially after the 1998 nuclear test.

§  However, the NSG waiver of 2008 and the bilateral civil nuclear agreement in 2014-15 largely addressed the concern.

§  Absence of Economic Content in the past

§  This has changed today and India is among top five export destination of Australia and Australia is a top 20 trade partner for India.

§  Trade in services have specially done well in areas like education, ICT, and tourism. But, even now merchandize trade is way below potential.

§  Absence of People to People Contact - the backdrop to this was the "white Australia" policy which discouraged migration from Asia.

§  In recent years, however, Indian immigrants are among the largest contributors to Australia's population growth.

 

-        The End of Cold War, India's nuclear mainstreaming, Australia's demographic diversification and a growth in economic ties have today altered the reality of India-Australia relations

§  Over the last decade, though, there has been a steady improvement in the quality and intensity of the political, commercial, cultural, educational, and technological engagement between the two nations

 

-        Other Commonalities which bring India Australia together 

§  System of government- Both are liberal democracies with federal structurefree press and independent judicial system.

§  Security and stability of Indo-Pacific is fundamental to both of us

§  English languagecricket, and Indian diaspora also provide important link between India and Australia.

§  Australia is in India's extended neighbourhood.

 

-        Complementarities

§  Why Australia Needs India - Strategic reasons, Market, Education Sector, Role of Indian diaspora in Australia's growth etc.

§  Why India Needs Australia - Strategic reasons, Energy - Uranium, huge natural resources etc., Technologies - Agriculture-Mining etc., Safety of India's diaspora, Support at international forums - UNSC, G-20, IORA etc.

§  Note: During the June 2020 summit, Australia reiterated it's support for India's permanent membership to UNSC. In recent past Australia has supported India's membership of Australia Group & Wassenaar. It also favors India's membership to NSG.

 

-        Present Drivers of India Australia Cooperation

 

A) STRATEGIC COOPERATION

§  After decades of being indifferent to each other, India and Australia have emerged as close strategic partners in the Indo-Pacific. This is evident in the number of high level visits and joint military exercises between the two countries. The joint naval exercise, AUSINDEX, is a manifestation of this synergistic approach to maritime security.

 

§  Key factors that is leading to strategic convergence:

§  China's aggression and assertive foreign policy - and its implications for Indo-Pacific.

§  Bilateral issues of China with both countries 

§  India's border dispute with China and recent infiltration of PLA in Ladakh

§  China's growing interference in Australian domestic politics and its attempt to use trade for geopolitical purposes have raised fundamental questions about its long term reliability for Australia.

·       Further, when Canberra joined some other nations in calling for an independent enquiry into the origins of the novel coronavirusChina threatened boycott of Australian products in response. Later they suspended Australian Beef Import and imposed tariffs on barley imports.

·       Australia has also invoked national security argument to keep Huawei out of Australia's 5G infrastructureblocked sale/lease of land to Chinese companies and consortium on security ground.

§  Anxieties about USA's strategic commitment to the Indo-Pacific.

§  There are legitimate concerns about US' unpredictability especially under Donald trump. Therefore, major countries in the region, such as India, Australia, Japan etc. need to work together to compensate for American distraction.

 

§  Manifestation of Strategic Convergence

§  Growing number of military exercises in all three services, as well as staff talks and military training initiatives. In 2019, the countries took part in the third edition of AUSINDEX, a large-scale anti-submarine exercise in the Bay of Bengal.

§  The upgradation of bilateral 2+2 dialogue to ministerial level during the June 2020 summit

§  Trilateral dialogues with Japan and Indonesia adds heft to strategic coordination.

§  Quad Security dialogue (India-USA-Japan-Australia) is the biggest manifestation of the increasing strategic convergence between Australia and India.

§  Signing of a Framework for Security Cooperation between India and Australia in 2014 also provides the much needed impetus for greater security engagement between the two countries.

§  Finalization of mutual logistic support Agreement during the June 2020 summit.

§  Agreement on Defence S&T Implementing Arrangement signed during the June 2020 summit.

 

§  Some Concerns in strategic relations

§  Different set of concerns regarding China: Australia's concern is regarding increasing activities of China in the Pacific whereas India is more worried about China's increased penetration in the Indian Ocean.

§  Though New Delhi defines pacific as its secondary area of interest and for Canberra Indian ocean is its second Sea, but military capacity limitations on both sides means that there is a challenge in deploying resources in secondary areas of interest.

§  India has also been uncertain about Australia's reliance since it backed out of Quad in 2007, though, this uncertainty is slowly disappearing.

§  Deficit of Military Capabilities - especially on the Indian side. While we are participating in joint exercises, our ability to come to each other's aid during conflict remains in question.

 

§  Way Forward:

§  Strategic cooperation is only expected to intensify in future as the threat of hegemonic China is not likely to disappear anytime soon in future.

§  Both countries should appreciate the increasing relevance of working together on a number of areas including maritime security, the establishment of blue economyinfrastructure and connectivity initiatives, and strategic industry collaboration.

§  Joint financing of infrastructure by India and Australia in the Indo-Pacific to strengthen the economic order in the region.

 

§  "It is only by building a series of overlapping bilateral and minilateral platforms for regional security cooperation that Delhi and Canberra can limit the dangers of the growing geopolitical imbalance in the Indo-PacificC Raja Mohan

 

§  The defence forces of the two countries should develop strategic coordination in the various sub-regions of the Indo-Pacific Littoral.

§  Eastern Indian Ocean connects Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean, and is at the heart of the Indo-Pacific. "Delhi and Canberra should initiate a full range of joint activities, including on maritime domain awareness, development of strategically located islands and marine science researchC Raja Mohan

·       Island of A&N and Cocos Island both in Indian ocean offer a chance to extend patrols and strategic ties.

 

§  The sea lines of communication between Indian and Pacific Ocean run through Indonesian Archipelago. Since there is a shared political commitment to the Indo-Pacific idea between Delhi, Canberra and Jakarta and since they are under growing pressures on them to secure their shared waters, India and Australia must seek trilateral maritime and naval cooperation with Indonesia.

 

§  Japan, Britain and France are other natural partners for India and Australia in Indo Pacific.

§  Trilateral Dialogues between India-Japan and Australia should be expanded from diplomatic level to practical maritime cooperation on the ground.

§  France is also resident power in Indo-Pacific and have shown eagerness to develop trilateral cooperation with India-Australia. India should endorse the initiative.

§  Britain also wants to return to oriental seas. Britain continues to lead the so-called five Power Defence Arrangement set up back in 1971, after Britain pulled back most of its forces from the East of Suez. The FPDA brings together the armed forces of the UK, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia and New Zealand. India should explore possible engagement with FPDA.

 

§  India should also give more thought on involving Australia in the Malabar exercise - it will send a message that India consider Australia as a legitimate security partner.

§  Quad members need to enhance discussion on operational aspects of their cooperation - this would lead to greater synergy between their forces while dealing with common problems.

§  In Addition, developing a common approach to certain ideas and principles like free, open and transparent Indo-Pacific is important.

 

§  Conclusion

§  Strategic partnership between the two countries have seen considerable advancement in the recent decade. But, to achieve the full potential, it will require dedicated attention and political leadership from both the capitals.

 

B)  ECONOMIC COOPERATION, TRADE AND INVESTMENT 

-        Current Situation

§  In 2018-19, the bilateral trade was more than $20 billion with a deficit of $10 billion for India. this bilateral trade is way below potential especially when we compare China-Australia trade which is worth more than $150 billion.

§  Both countries also have an investment of about $10 billion in each other's country.

§  Recently a report published by Australia - "Indian Economy Strategy to 2035" says that no single market over the next 20 years will offer more growth opportunities for Australia than India.

§  The report highlighted 10 sectors that were Australia's competitive advantages match India's needs, and 10 state in India where we should focus efforts. The sectors include flagship education sector, agribusiness, resources etc.

 

-        Way Forward

§  Both countries should utilize current innovations in digital trade. Global attention towards digital economics, along with technological innovation in both countries, especially blockchain technology, is posed to enhance both maritime connectivity and ease of doing business.

§  The recent decision to reinitiate negotiations on Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement should be backed by timeline to finalize it ASAP.

§  India's concerns regarding RCEP should be looked into with priority. RCEP can act as a great opportunity not only to widen the market, but also for MSME's to enter the global value chains.

§  India shouldn’t be overcautious about its trade deficit with Australia - it is more important to address other equally pertinent issues such as nature of commodities being traded and their subsequent effect on the producers, consumers, and governments. As a corollary trade deficit shouldn't dictate the terms of negotiation for a trade deal.

§  "A confident Indo-Pacific strategy cannot be sustained by a policy of economic timidity": Shyam Saran

 

C)  AUSTRALIAN TECHNOLOGIES IN SOME CORE SECTOR

§  Australia is a world leader in sectors like Agricultural, Animal Husbandry innovationsMining etc.

§  Australia's world class Agricultural sector can support India all the way from better crop and herd productivity to storage and transport, cold chain supply, food-processing and retail.

§  Australia is a mining superpower and India can benefit from the technology, expertise and the capital that will help unlock India's vast mineral resources.

 

D) CIVIL NUCLEAR COOPERATION AGREEMENT WAS SIGNED IN 2014

§  Australia has started supplying nuclear material to India starting 2017.

 

E)  SOFT POWER MECHANISMS LIKE CRICKET, PEOPLE TO PEOPLE CONTACT, CULTURE AND TOURISM

§  Indian Diaspora - Around 3% of Australia's population (700,000) is of Indian diaspora. They are continuously increasing there presence in business and politics. People to People links and Vibrant Indian origin community plays a crucial role in strengthening India-Australia relations.

§  Educational linkages and collaborations have also increased dramatically in recent years.

§  The changing political landscape in UK and USA and their VISA policies is going to make Australia an even more attractive destination for Indian Students especially since Australia boasts of some of the leading universities in the world.

§  The early control of COVID-19 in Australia also makes it possible that there universities would be open before the colleges in Western countries thus bringing more Indian students to Australia.

§  As more Indian students graduate from Australian Universities, people to people contact and institutional linkages will only become stronger.

§  Tourism (especially from India to Australia) is on the rise. More than 3,00,000 Indian tourists visited Australia in 2017.

§  Sports is emerging as another key binding factor in India-Australia relations. While cricket is the obvious synergy in this regard, there is a growing interest in other sports. India has an Australian Football league club which plays in the Australian Football international Cup, for example.

§  The Indian Film Festival in Melbourne, as well as many other growing collaborations in the arts have been encouraged by Government and also continue to grow organically.

§  A number of Institutes promote the Australia-India bilateral relationship and have played a leading role in bringing the countries closer together. The Australia Indian Institutethe Australia India Youth DialogueThe Center for India Australia Studies, the Australia India Business Council etc. operate independently of the prospective governments but are important stakeholders in the bilateral relationships.

 

F)  PARA DIPLOMACY IS ANOTHER AREA WHERE THE TWO COUNTRIES HAVE MADE A LOT OF PROGRESS

§  In fact the recently released "Indian Economy Strategy - 2035" also calls Australian government to establish different relations with Indian states as India is best seen not as a single economy but as an aggregation of very different state economies, each growing at different rates. 

 

 

 

 

·       KEY HIGHLIGHTS OF THE JUNE 2020 VIRTUAL SUMMIT between the two Prime Ministers - Narendra Modi and Scott Morrison

§  The summit was first of its kind virtual bilateral summit and indicated that both sides didn't want the present momentum in bilateral relationship to get disrupted. 

§  Joint Declaration of a 'Shared Vision for Maritime Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific'.

§  "Both India and Australia share a vision of a free, open, inclusive and rules-based Indo-Pacific region to support the freedom of navigation, over-flight and peaceful and cooperative use of the seas by adherence of all nations to international law including the  UNCLOS and peaceful resolution of disputes rather than through unilateral or coercive actions"

§  Elevation of bilateral ties to a "Comprehensive Strategic Partnership"

§  Australia is only the fifth country with which India has signed CSP after UK, Indonesia, Vietnam and UAE.

§  CSP is expected to raise the level of trust required to improve the trade and investment flows.

§  Mutual Logistic Support Agreement (MLSA) was also signed.

§  It will allow both militaries the reciprocal use of bases, humanitarian and disaster relief cooperation, port exercises, and passage exercises. 

§  Australia is only the 4th country after France, Singapore and USA to sign a mutual logistic support agreement with India.

§  Upgradation of 2+2 dialogue to ministerial level (from secretary level) who will meet to discuss strategic issues at least every two years.

§  Framework agreement on Cyber and Cyber enabled Critical Technology domains. 

§  MoU on mining and processing critical and strategic minerals including Australian rare earth metals used for electronics.

§  MoU on governance, vocational training and water management.

§  Decision to recommence talks on Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement, suspended since 2015.

§  The two leaders also committed to a new phase of the Australia-India Strategic Research Fund to promote innovative solutions for responding to and treating COVID-19.

 

·       Analysis of summit

§  Welcome progress on security cooperation - CSP, MLSA, Upgradation of 2+2 dialogue, Cyber technology etc.

§  Not substantial progress on trade - a decision to restart the CECA negotiation is the only positive. But Delhi inability to wrap up any new bilateral trade agreement with any of the major countries recently raises a number of concerns.

 

·       Way Forward

§  At Strategic Level

§   Develop strategic coordination in the various sub-regions of the Indo-Pacific Littoral

§  Involve Australia in Malabar

§  Enhance Quad Discussion in operational Aspects

§  At economic level

§  Give up economic timidity and work aggressively towards CECA and RCEP.

§  Enhancing Maritime Connectivity in the Indo-Pacific is of utmost importance in the face of India and Australia's effort to strengthen bilateral ties. The two countries should promote people to peoplebusiness to business and people to business interconnectedness in the region. Indo Pacific is not only important for commerce but also for the geo-politics and geo-strategy.

§  Drive for Digital India and Australia's driver for digital innovation to fit into the fourth industrial revolution - are highly complementary in increasing access in the maritime spaces, bringing down costs and augmenting the feasibility of trade opportunities between India and Australia. 

 

·       Conclusion

§  "The current downturn in the global economy certainly limits the immediate possibilities for realizing the full potential of commercial relations between India and Australia. But there are a host of emerging issues - from reforming the WHO to 5G technology and from strengthening ISA to building resilience against Climate Change and disasters - that lend themselves to intensive bilateral political and institutional engagement.

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08-Jul-2020 02:00:27 AM

VARIOUS THEORIES FOR THE FORMATION OF MOON AND RECENT NASA FINDINGS

-        Why in news?

o   NASA research says that the Moon is more metallic than thought before (July 2020)

-        Example Questions

o   Discuss various theories explaining formation of the Moon. How does recent findings by NASA's  Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) modify our understanding about the formation of the Moon. (15 marks, 250 words)

-        Basics About Moon

o   It is Earth's only natural satellite

o   Size : 1/4th of earth's diameter

o   Distance : 3,84,400 km away from earth

o   Only one side visible

§  The moon moves around the earth in about 27 days. It takes exactly the same time to complete one spin. As a result, only one side of the moon is visible to us on earth.

 

 

-        How moon was formed: Various theories

               i.         In 1838, Sir George Darwin suggested that initially, the earth and the moon formed a single rotating body. The whole mass became a dumb-bell-shaped body and eventually it broke.

              ii.         It was also suggested that material forming moon was separated from what we have at present the depression occupied by the pacific ocean.

            iii.         Present Scientists do not agree with either of the explanations. It is now believed that formation of moon, as a satellite of the earth, is an outcome of 'giant impact' or what is described as 'the big splat"A body of the size of one to three times that of Mars collided into earth sometimes shortly after the earth was formed (around 4.5 billion years ago). It blasted a large part of the earth into space. This portion of the blasted material then continued to orbit the earth and eventually formed into the present moon about 4.4 billion years ago.

§  The hypothesis is also backed by substantial evidence, such as the close resemblance between the Moon's bulk chemical composition with that of Earth.

§  However, it is also known that Earth's crust has lesser amounts of iron oxide than the moon - a finding that scientists are still trying to explain.

 

-        NASA's recent finding about Moon and its implications

·       Finding: NASA has said that its Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft had found evidence that the Moon's subsurface might have greater quantities of metals such as iron and titanium than thought before. It was discovered by the Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) instrument aboard the LRO.

 

-        Technical Details: How Mini-RF instrument discovered this?

o   Mini-RF was measuring the electrical property within lunar soil in crater floors in the Moon's northern hemisphere. The property known as dielectric constant, is the ratio of electric permeability of a material to the electric permeability of a vacuum.

o   The team found that dielectric constant of material increased as larger craters were surveyed and kept rising in crater sizes upto 5 km in diameter. After this the values levelled off.

o   Why?

·       Possibly because the meteors that created them dug up dust containing iron and titanium oxides from beneath the Moon's surface. Dielectric properties are directly linked to the concentration of these metal minerals.

o   Prediction

·       It means that beyond a few meters of the Moon's upper surface - which relatively has lower metal deposits - lie large unknown quantities of iron and titanium oxides.

 

-        Other studies have backed the findings of Mini-RF:

§  The above findings have been backed by metal oxide maps from the LRO Wide-Angle CameraJapan's Kaguya mission and NASA's Lunar Prospector spacecraft, which showed that larger craters with their increased dielectric materials were also richer in metals.

 

-        Significance

§  The findings can help in drawing a clearer connection between Earth and the Moon. It may indicate that Moon was created from material much deeper beneath Earth's surface than was believed before.

§  Or, the newfound metal presence could be the result of molten lunar surface cooling down gradually.

 

-        Future research?

§  NASA is trying to find whether the same relation between metal deposits and crater size holds true on the southern hemisphere of the Moon.

 

-        Conclusion

The recent findings of higher metal content in Lunar subsurface indicate that there is still a lot that needs to be understood about the relation between Earth and the Moon


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05-Jul-2020 02:38:27 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice (for next five day)

Dear Students, 

Please find below the questions for daily answer writing practice for next five days: 

 

1.      [5th July 2020]: Discuss different grounds on which a person can be deprived of Indian Citizenship. [10 marks, 150 words]

 

2.    [6th July 2020]: Who is an Overseas Citizen of India cardholder? What are the benefits enjoyed by OCI cardholders in India when compared to other foreigners. [10 marks, 150 words]

 

3.    [7th July 2020]: "Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019 is a fulfilment of India's moral and constitutional obligations to minorities in its neighborhood" Critically analyze [15 marks, 250 words]

 

4.      [8th July 2020]: "A nationwide NRC will need a lot of homework to achieve any positive outcome for the country". Discuss. [10 marks, 150 words]

 

5. [9th July 2020]: "An exhaustive National Population Register (NPR) is a good idea, but government should bring in more clarity of the purpose and reduce duplications and redundancies" Explain [10 marks, 150 words]    

 

Source to Study: Polity Booklet 2 (and two videos uploaded on the portal)  

 

 I will share a model answer for each after 9 pm every day.

 

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27-Jun-2020 00:32:31 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice: Ques: 10

Friends, 

Please find below the question for today's answer writing practice. 

[Daily Answer Writing Practice: 26th June]: Ques-10: “While One Nation One Ration Card has the potential to improve outcomes particularly for the subaltern groups, like any delivery mechanism, the entire value chain of making the system work needs to be closely monitored and backed by infrastructure" Elaborate [15 marks, 250 words]

Syllabus: GS3:Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revampingIndian

Source to Study: Various news articles on the issues shared in last 1 month or June Booklet -3 (to be discussed on Saturday) 
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 on 27-Jun-2020 00:33:06 AM
Will share answers of both Question 9 and Question 10 by tomorrow (28th June 2020)

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25-Jun-2020 17:03:22 PM

Daily Answer Writing Practice: Ques: 9

Friends, 
Please find below the question for today's answer writing practice. 

[Daily Answer Writing Practice: 25th June]: Ques-9: “Deficit monetization could be a risky affair for the economy to handle in current scenario” Critically Analyse [15 marks, 250 words]


Syllabus: GS3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment

Source to Study: Various news articles on the issues shared in last 1 month or June Booklet -3 (will be done in class on 27th June)
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24-Jun-2020 13:46:17 PM

Newspaper Articles: 24th June 2020

Important Articles from the Hindu, IE and PIB of 24th June 2020

 

GS2

  1. Indian Polity and Constitution
    1. Arbitrary Power and Rights: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/arrest-the-virus-of-arbitrary-power/article31901161.ece
  2. Governance and Social Justice
    1. Education: Transforming Education: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/transforming-education/article31900713.ece
  3. International
    1. India-China:
      1.  https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/army-chief-naravane-to-visit-ladakh-today-to-review-ground-situation/article31895896.ece
      2. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/india-china-border-didpute-diplomacy-india-foreign-policy-nalin-surie-6473046/
    2. India-Pakistan: Slashing of mission staff: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/slash-staff-strength-at-high-commission-in-delhi-india-tells-pakistan/article31899688.ece
    3. USA - Curbs of H1B:
      1. https://www.thehindu.com/business/h-1b-curbs-misguided-harmful/article31901178.ece.
      2. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/us-h1b-visa-suspension-india-it-companies-6471966/

 

 

GS3

  1. Economy
    1. Economic Growth: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/coronavirus-india-economic-crisis-6472983/
  2. Agriculture
    1. Food security and Farmer Welfare: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/crop-of-ironies/article31900748.ece
  3. S&T: Nano-technology: India's contribution: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetail.aspx?PRID=1633850
  4. Defence and Internal Security
    1. Border Security: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/indian-army-intelligence-forward-posts-border-dispute-china-lac-galwan-valley-6473039/

 

 

Pre Only Facts

  1. Culture: Ashadi Bij: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetail.aspx?PRID=1633490
  2. S&T: New Biomolecules to fight drug resistance in Kala Azar: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetail.aspx?PRID=1633851
  3. Operation Samudra Setu: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetail.aspx?PRID=1633742
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 on 24-Jun-2020 17:11:04 PM
Thank you so much sir.......you are a blessing in disguise.

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24-Jun-2020 02:57:06 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice: Ques: 8 - Model Answer

    [Daily Answer Writing Practice: 23rd June 2020]: Ques-8: Critically Analyze Vedas as Source of History [15 marks, 250 words ] [GS1]

 

Ans: Vedic literature in the form of Samhitas (Rig, Sam, Yajur and Atharva) and the associated Brahmans, Aranyakas and Upnishads are the earliest literary composition of the Indian subcontinent and are the most important and the only literary source of history for the Vedic Age (1500 BCE – 600 BCE)

 

These literary sources complement the archaeological sources and give historians an insight into various facets of life of Vedic people. They tell us about economy, society, polity and religion which is difficult to know from the archaeological remains of the period.

Economy, according to the Vedic texts see a transition from pastoral-cattle based in early Vedic to Settled Agricultural economy in later Vedic. Society which in the beginning had tribal features of egalitarianism in class and gender matters becomes more hierarchical in later Vedic age as evident from Purusha Shukta of the 10th Book of the Rig Veda. Since, the Vedic texts are religious texts they give a detailed description of the sacrificial religion, various gods and rituals of the period. Atharva Veda is important to understand the folk tradition and Aranyakas & Brahmans are crucial for knowing the philosophical concepts of the time.

 

But at the same time, there are some key challenges in understanding history from Vedas:

1)    Since they are religious text and not history books, so historical rationality and neutrality may be missing.

2)    Vedic texts were not popular texts -> only gives the view of Brahmans who composed them.

3)    They were transmitted orally for centuries -> Changes and modification in content may have happened over the years.

4)    Authentic translations are very few and a lot depends on interpretation of various terms.

5)    They also represent a small geographical region (the northwest and north-India) and can’t tell anything about the rest of the country.

 

Despite these limitations, the importance of Vedic texts as document of history is immense and our understanding of India’s Early historic phase would have been incomplete in the absence of Vedas.
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23-Jun-2020 15:41:01 PM

Newspaper Articles: 23rd June 2020

Important Articles from the Hindu, IE and PIB of 23rd June 2020

 

GS1

  1. History and Culture
    1. Kamkhya Temple: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/for-first-time-since-1565-ambubachi-sans-fair/article31888105.ece
    2. Persons: Shyama Prasad Mukherjee: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/syama-prasad-mookerjee-death-anniversary-6471420/
    3. Variyamkunnath Kunjahammed Haji: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-variyamkunnath-kunjahammed-haji-the-khilafat-leader-6471224/
  2. Society
    1. Racism:
      1. https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/in-anti-racism-fight-the-lyndon-b-johnson-option/article31893321.ece

 

 

GS2

  1. Governance and Social Justice
    1. Transparency: Significance of RTI during COVID-19 Crisis: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/transparency-during-a-crisis/article31892527.ece
  2. International
    1. India-China Border Issue:
      1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/lac-situation-india-china-corps-commanders-to-hold-talks/article31887020.ece
      2. https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/a-way-out-of-undelineated-borders/article31893324.ece
      3. China-Japan Border dispute: https://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/after-face-off-with-india-china-embroiled-in-maritime-dispute-with-japan/story-aPSWNmYndKkcpcuf4tYDGL.html
    2. India-China:
      1. India's China Policy: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/india-china-lac-border-20-armymen-killed-galwan-valley-6471415/
      2. India-China - The role of Russia: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/india-china-border-dispute-galwan-faceoff-resolution-russia-6471548/

 

GS3

  1. Defence and Internal Security
    1. Terrorism: The Lone Wolf Threat: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/the-lone-wolf-threat-on-isolated-terror-attack-in-london/article31893294.ece
    2. Securing the Sea Lanes: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/india-china-border-dispute-galwan-sea-route-6471403/
    3. Border Security: High Altitude Warfare: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/india-china-border-dispute-why-high-altitude-warfare-is-challenging-how-soldiers-are-trained-6471532/

 

 

Pre Only Facts

  1. Geography: Mt Merapi: https://indianexpress.com/article/world/indonesias-mount-merapi-erupts-twice-6470597/
  2. Economy: LIC IPO: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/lic-ipo-market-disinvestment-6470795/
  3. Employment: Jharkhand's Mukhyamantri Shramik Yojna: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/jharkhand-plans-job-guarantee-scheme-for-urban-poor-6471603/
  4. S&T: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1633378
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23-Jun-2020 03:29:23 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice: Question 8

[Daily Answer Writing Practice: 23rd June]: Ques-8: Critically analyze Vedas as Source of History [15 marks, 250 words ]

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23-Jun-2020 03:04:46 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice: Question 7: Model Answer

[Daily Answer Writing Practice: 18th June] Ques-7: Write a short note on Vedic Literature [12.5 marks 200 words]

 

Vedic literature form the earliest literary composition of the Indian subcontinent. They were composed between 1500 BCE-600 BCE and mark the beginning of historical phase in India.

They consist of the four Samhitas (Rig, Sam, Yajur and Atharva), Brahmans, Aranyakas and Upnishads.

 

The Rig Veda Samhita is a book of hymns which were recited at the time of the performance of the sacrificial rituals. Book 2-7 of the 10 books of Rig Veda were composed during 1500-1000 BCE, the Early Vedic Period, and thus are important source to understand this period.

 

The Sam Veda consists of more than 1800 verses which are mostly borrowed from Rig Veda, but modified to fit the musical notations. The Yajurveda explains how sacrificial rituals should be performed. They also highlight the ancient knowledge of geometry, seasons etc which were required for performing o the rituals. The Atharvaveda is the last of four Samhitas. Other than the Rig Vedic hymns, they also consist of spells and charms which were used by common masses in their day to day lives. It thus represent the folk tradition of the time.

 

Brahmans, Aranyakas & Upnishads are associated with each of the four Samhitas.

 

Brahmans are the prose explanation of the hymns in the Samhita portion and give details and explanation of the sacrificial rituals and their outcome.

 

The Aranyakas (also known as the forest books) consist of the philosophy behind the rituals. Infact sometimes it is difficult to differentiate between Brahmans & Aranyakas and Aranyakas and Upnishads. Their content is overlapping.

 

The Upnishads also contain variety of philosophical ideas about sacrifice, the body, universe etc. They are most closely associated with the concept of Atman and Brahamana.

 

All these taken together make the Vedic literature, the most important and the only literary source to understand the social, economic, political, religious and cultural aspect of the Vedic Period (1500 BCE – 600 BCE). Thus their importance as document of history is immense.

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22-Jun-2020 16:35:46 PM

Newspaper Articles: 22nd June 2020

Important Articles from the Hindu, IE and PIB of 22nd June 2020

 

GS1

  1. History and Culture
    1. Ahom Kingdom: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/the-legacy-of-sukapha-founder-of-ahom-kingdom-6468320/

 

GS2

  1. Indian Polity and Constitution
    1. Secrecy of Ballot: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/secrecy-of-ballot-is-the-cornerstone-of-free-and-fair-elections-says-supreme-court/article31883015.ece
    2. Significance of Robust opposition: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/editorials/india-china-border-dispute-galwan-narendra-modi-6469975/
  2. Governance and Social Justice
    1. Reforming Civil Services:
      1. Civil Services Board: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/mp-questions-punjab-govts-move-on-fixed-term-for-ias-officers/article31884891.ece
    2. Schemes: Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojna: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/sagy-model-village-scheme-narendra-modi-ministry-study-funds-6470195/
  3. International
    1. India-China Border LAC:
      1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/armed-forces-told-to-forcefully-deal-with-chinese-aggression-along-lac/article31881949.ece
      2. https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/indias-continuing-two-front-conundrum/article31884155.ece
    1. India-Nepal: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/map-row-what-changed-in-india-nepal-ties-6470080/

 

 

GS3

  1. Agriculture
    1. Buffer Stock Measures: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/india-lockdown-food-stock-food-corporation-of-india-ashok-gulati-6469970/

 

Pre Only Facts

  1. Culture: International day of Yoga: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-is-international-yoga-day-observed-on-june-21-6469756/
  2. Geography: North Italy Glaciers: https://indianexpress.com/article/world/giant-sheets-of-tarpaulin-used-to-cover-glacier-in-northern-italy-to-slow-melting-caused-by-global-warming-6469781/
  3. EB&CC: Golden Langur: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/even-golden-langurs-suffer-forced-abortion-infanticide/article31883455.ece
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21-Jun-2020 23:51:53 PM

Newspaper Articles: 19th - 21st June

Important Articles from the Hindu, IE and PIB from 19th - 21st June 2020

 

GS1

  1. History and Culture
    1. Megalithic Culture: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/excavation-at-kodumanal-reveals-megalithic-belief-in-afterlife/article31862510.ece
  2. Geography
    1. Earthquakes in Delhi-NCR: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1632520

 

GS2

  1. Indian Polity and Constitution
    1. Rajya Sabha Elections/ Role of Rajya Sabha
      1. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/rajya-sabha-elections-congress-bjp-politics-election-commission-chakshu-roy-6465586/
      2. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/the-hindu-explains-how-are-elections-to-the-rajya-sabha-held/article31879432.ece
  2. Governance and Social Justice
    1. Rural Employment
      1. Gareeb Kalyan Rozgar Abhiyan: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1632231
    2. Health:
      1. Yoga and Meditation: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/meditation-has-lasting-benefits/article23631197.ece
      2. Mental Health: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/sushant-singh-rajput-mental-health-depression-vikram-patel-6467051/
      3. Sickle Cell: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/health/world-sickle-cell-day-2020-aims-to-increase-awareness-over-sickle-cell-disorders-71852
  3. International
    1. UNSC: India's win:
      1.  https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-elected-non-permanent-member-of-united-nations-security-council/article31856470.ece
      2. https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/at-the-high-table-the-hindu-editorial-on-indias-un-security-council-win/article31863713.ece
    1. FATF: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/fatf-indian-officials-attend-virtual-eag-plenary-meet/article31871464.ece
    2. UNHCR: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/governance/nearly-80-mln-displaced-globally-by-2019-end-half-of-them-children-unhcr-71844
    1. India-China Border Issue:
      1. https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/galwan-postscript-to-a-tragedy/article31863515.ece
      2. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/india-china-stand-off-line-of-actual-control-galwan-valley-sudheendra-kulkarni-6465585/
      3. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/galwan-valley-faceoff-india-china-border-dispute-6467098/
      4. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/the-hindu-explains-who-does-galwan-valley-belong-to/article31879418.ece

 

 

GS3

  1. Economy
    1. Manufacturing Sector and dependency on China: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/can-india-decouple-itself-from-chinese-manufacturing/article31864821.ece
    2. Why trade ban with China was a bad idea: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/india-china-trade-ban-explained-6465949/

 

Pre Only Facts

  1. Geography: Annular Eclipse: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/science-technology/india-to-witness-ring-of-fire-eclipse-on-june-21-71873
  2. S&T: SAYABHAMA: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1632668
  3. S&T: Space: Micius: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/science-technology/china-s-quantum-satellite-enables-first-totally-secure-long-range-messages-71831
  4. S&T: I-LAB: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1632393
  5. S&T: Umifenovir: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/umifenovir-to-undergo-clinical-trial/article31863591.ece
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18-Jun-2020 15:39:09 PM

Daily Answer Writing Practice: Question 7

Daily Answer Writing Practice: [18th June 2020]: Ques-7: Write a short note on Vedic Literature [12.5 marks 200 words]

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 on 21-Jun-2020 23:52:36 PM
Will send it tomorrow.

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 on 21-Jun-2020 21:22:50 PM
Sir answer.?

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18-Jun-2020 15:21:32 PM

Daily Answer Writing Practice: Question 6 - Model Answer

Daily Answer Writing Practice: [16th June 2020]: Ques-6: MGNREGA as A social protection cover can Alleviate distress due to Covid-19 crisis. Discuss [10 marks, 150 words]

 

MGNREGA 2005 as a statutory rural job guarantee scheme has played a crucial role in alleviating rural poverty, increasing rural wages, empowering women, and in developing rural infrastructure to promote a more equitable, environment friendly and sustainable rural development.  

 

It has specially been a handy scheme during distress situation like droughts, floods etc and has come us a succour to poor in difficult times. The COVID-19 crisis also presents a situation where MGNREGA can alleviate the distress by:

-   Providing work to returning migrants thus ensuring a basic income for them

-       Ensuring the flow of money in rural economy which will keep aggregate demands on the higher side and benefit country’s economy.

-  Development of better infrastructure like rural roads, ponds, canals, water harvesting facilities etc for a more sustainable development.

 

But for above goals to be achieved following steps would be required:

-   Higher Financial Allocation – the current allocation of around Rs 1 lakh crore may not be sufficient to take care of the rural job demands which is expected to come.

-      Proactive creation of jobs cards for returning migrants by the authorities.

-  Initiation of MGNREGA work in every village to make more work available

-    Ensuring at least 100 days of work for all the card holders.

-     Steps for safety and Hygiene like soap, gloves, masks etc at every worksite, non-sharing of tools etc.

-     Decentralize decision making to let Gram Panchayat take more decisions and thus fast track the process.

If these steps are taken proactively, the COVID-19 crisis may become a moment for true revival of the MGNREGA initiative and through it of the rural economy.

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18-Jun-2020 12:14:18 PM

Newspaper Articles: 18th June 2020


GS2

  1. Governance and Social Justice
    1. Vulnerable Section: Maternal health: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/maternal-health-matters/article31854774.ece
  2. International
    1. India-China Border Issues:
      1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-wants-peace-but-capable-of-giving-a-befitting-reply-pm-modi/article31850611.ece
      2. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/ladakh-face-off-india-china-agree-to-de-escalate/article31853208.ece
      3. https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/history-the-stand-off-and-policy-worth-rereading/article31854822.ece
      4. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/ananlysis-with-china-india-will-have-to-be-atmanirbhar/article31850097.ece
      5. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/india-china-border-tension-galwan-valley-lac-violence-army-sujan-r-chinoy-6463939/
      6. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/gulwan-faceoff-china-india-border-dispute-explained-6463394/
    1. India Nepal:
      1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-pledges-to-construct-sanitation-facility-at-nepals-iconic-pashupatinath-temple/article31839092.ece
    2. Multilateralism post Covid-19
      1. https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/multilateralism-post-covid-19/article31854731.ece

 

 

GS3

  1. EB&CC
    1. Climate Change: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/temperatures-in-india-could-rise-by-4-4-c-by-2100-says-govt-report-71797
    2. Environment -> Land use and Zoonoses: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/reverse-land-use-change-to-prevent-zoonoses-like-covid-19-unccd-71793
  2. Defence and Internal Security
    1. National Security Strategy: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/india-china-lac-dispute-violence-galwan-river-doklam-h-s-panag-6463940/

 

 

Pre Only Facts

  1. Social: Education: First Bell: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/first-bell-new-classes-from-tomorrow/article31822826.ece
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17-Jun-2020 11:09:01 AM

Newspaper Articles: 17th June 2020 (Hindu, IE, PIB)

Important Articles from the Hindu, IE and PIB of 17th June 2020

 

GS2

  1. Governance and Social Justice
    1. MPLADS: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/in-defence-of-mplads/article31845286.ece
  2. International
    1. India-China Border dispute:
      1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/indian-army-says-20-soldiers-killed-in-clash-with-chinese-troops-in-the-galwan-area/article31845662.ece
      2. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/chinese-troops-tried-to-change-status-quo-mea/article31848316.ece
    2. India-Nepal: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/nepal-ties-and-the-benaras-to-bengaluru-spectrum/article31845772.ece
    3. ICC: US Sanctions: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-the-us-has-approved-sanctions-against-international-criminal-court-6460199/

 

 

GS3

  1. Science and Technology
    1. S&T: Global Partnership in Artificial Intelligence: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1631676
  2. EB&CC
    1. Urban Jungles: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/with-334-wildlife-species-guwahati-redefines-concept-of-urban-jungle/article31842868.ece

 

 

Pre Only Facts

  1. Culture: Talamamdle: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/karnataka/amid-pandemic-traditional-art-of-talamaddale-goes-digital/article31836303.ece
  2. Economy: India's first gas exchange: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-the-us-has-approved-sanctions-against-international-criminal-court-6460199/
  3. S&T: Dexamethanose:
    1. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/06/cheap-steroid-first-drug-shown-reduce-death-covid-19-patients
    2. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/indian-doctors-express-cautious-endorsement-for-dexamathasone-for-covid-19/article31845167.ece
  1. S&T: NASA's Gateway Lunar Orbiting outpost: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-nasas-gateway-lunar-orbiting-outpost-6460219/
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17-Jun-2020 00:45:17 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice: Question 5 - Model ANswers

Daily Answer Writing Practice: [15th June 2020]: Ques-5:  "Territorial dispute between India and Nepal is merely a symptom of the structural changes unfolding in the external and internal context of the bilateral relationship" Discuss [15 marks, 250 words]

 

Till recently, both India and Nepal agreed that 98% of our boundary issues have been resolved. Kalapani dispute at the tri-junction of India, Nepal and Tibet and Susta dispute at the tri-junction of the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Nepal were the only two minor issues pending.

But in recent months, the Kalapani dispute has flared up into a major flashpoint between the two countries. Parliament of Nepal has recently passed an amendment to the Constitution of Nepal which modifies the Map of Nepal to include the Limpiyadhura-Lipulekha and Kalapani territory as part of Nepal. India has vehemently criticized this action as not backed by history or facts and unilateral.

 

Various foreign policy experts like Rakesh Sood and C Raja Mohan have opined that the sudden flaring up of the issue by Nepal is a manifestation of structural changes unfolding in the bilateral relations between the two countries:

a.     Political narrative about India has been changing for sometimes in Nepal. Over the years India’s “Special Relationship” through the 1950 friendship treaty, open borders, national treatment of Nepali citizens in India etc. have come to acquire negative connotation of a paternalistic India or even to the extent of India as a bully. India’s alleged support to Madhesi lockdowns, interference in Nepal’s internal matter etc have worsened the situation.

b.     These anti-Indian sentiments have been used up by Nepali politicians to flare up the territorial nationalism and divert attention of people away from the failures of Nepal government

c.     The assertive policy of China has also identified Nepal as an important element in its South Asian footprint. The visit of Xi Jinping to Nepal in 2019, various energy and infra agreements is a manifestation of the same. China has also come to acquire considerable influence over the political parties of Nepal and in its internal affairs.

 

Way forward for India

1.     Handle the border dispute quietly, bilaterally and diplomatically without raking up public controversy. Foreign secretary level process should be restarted quickly

2.     Come to terms with Nepal’s natural politics of balance under which its plays ‘China Card’ while dealing with India and vice-versa.

3.     Bet on the fact that Nepal’s economic geography, its persuit of enlightened self-interest, our people-to-people contact & cultural similarlities and Kathmandu’s natural balancing politics will continue to provide a framework for strong India-Nepal relations

4.     Recognize that our ‘Special Relation’ with Nepal is part of the problem and needs to be discarded for a more durable and interest-based partnership with Nepal. All bilateral issues – the 1950 agreement, national treatment to Nepali citizens in India, open border and visa free movement etc. – should be brought back on table.

 

A normal relationship where India can be generous partner will be a better foundation for a neighbourhood first in 21st century.
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16-Jun-2020 15:34:31 PM

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16-Jun-2020 11:07:44 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice: Question 6

Daily Answer Writing Practice: [16th June 2020]: Ques-6: MGNREGA as a social protection cover can alleviate distress due to Covid-19 crisis. Discuss [10 marks, 150 words]


Source to study: Daily newspaper Articles of May OR June 2020 Part 2 booklet.
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15-Jun-2020 15:15:32 PM

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15-Jun-2020 02:11:52 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice: Question 5

Daily Answer Writing Practice: [15th June 2020]: Ques-5:  "Territorial dispute between India and Nepal is merely a symptom of the structural changes unfolding in the external and internal context of the bilateral relationship" Discuss [15 marks, 250 words]

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15-Jun-2020 01:50:08 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice: Question 4 - Model Answers

    [13TH JUNE]: QUES:4 "STRINGENT LABOR LAWS NEED TO BE AMENDED. BUT DURING COVID DISTRESS, REFORM WILL WORK IF LABOUR IS SEEN AS A KEY STAKEHOLDER." DISCUSS IN LIGHT OF THE RECENT ATTEMPT BY SEVERAL STATES TO PROVIDE EXEMPTION TO INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS AND BUSINESSES FROM VARIOUS LABOUR LAWS [12.5 MARKS, 200 WORDS]

 

        Labour Laws in India, because of their complexity, rigidity and multiplicity (around 240 labour laws in the country) have for long been known to promote rent seeking, casualization of jobs, capitalization in labour intensive sectors and thus loss of foreign investments to countries with simpler labour laws. All these have impacted ease of doing business and economic growth in the country.

 

COVID-19 crisis have further aggravated the situation. To deal with this several states including Punjab, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh have exempted business establishments from several labour laws including those related to minimum wages, working hours, higher payment for overtime,labour unions etc. This has been done to promote easy of doing business, attract investment and revitalize economic growth.

 

But, the above relaxations are being criticized on several grounds:

1)    Against Constitutional Morality:

a.     Violates fundamental rights of workers under Article 19(1)(c) -> right to form association.

b.    Violates Directive Principle of State Policies mentioned under Article 39(c) – state should prevent concentration of wealth, Article 39(e) – preserving the health and strength of workers and Article 43 – securing living wage, decent standard of life etc.

c.     Misuse of ordinance making power -> to sidestep several provisions of national laws, especially when 4 labour codes are being considered by the Parliament.

d.    Misuse of Concurrent list provisions -> to violate the crucial provisions of national law.

2)    Violates International Conventions such as that of International Labour Organization (ILO)

3)    Violates Supreme Court Verdict in PUDR vs Union of India, 1984 – the judgment equates the work below minimum wage to forced labour

4)    Hampers business environment -> Several ILO reports have said that poor labour laws hamper investment. Further, lack of proper protection for labourers may impact exportability of India’s produce

Thus, relaxation of labour laws is not only a travesty of justice but is also bad economics. It may also keep skilled laborers out of the job market.

Labourers have to be considered as stakeholders in economic growth and their safety, protection and welfare have to be given high priority for sustainable growth. Rather than relaxing implementation of several laws, the focus should be on finalization of four codes which Parliament is already considering. Further there should be steps taken to revive economic growth in the form of stimulus package, easy credit and tax relaxations.

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15-Jun-2020 01:48:54 AM

Daily Answer Writing Practice: Question 4

[13TH JUNE]: QUES:4 "STRINGENT LABOR LAWS NEED TO BE AMENDED. BUT DURING COVID DISTRESS, REFORM WILL WORK IF LABOUR IS SEEN AS A KEY STAKEHOLDER." DISCUSS IN LIGHT OF THE RECENT ATTEMPT BY SEVERAL STATES TO PROVIDE EXEMPTION TO INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS AND BUSINESSES FROM VARIOUS LABOUR LAWS [12.5 MARKS, 200 WORDS] 

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15-Jun-2020 01:48:14 AM

Newspaper Articles: 13th and 14th June (Hindu, IE and PIB)


GS1

  1. Society
    1. Society: Racism: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/black-lives-and-the-experiment-called-america/article31816273.ece

 

 

GS2

  1. Indian Polity and Constitution
    1. Reservation laws in 9th Schedule: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/include-quota-related-laws-in-9th-schedule-to-bar-them-from-judicial-review-paswan-6456215/
  2. Governance and Social Justice
    1. Health:
      1. Fighting COVID-19: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/india-covid-19-6456188/
      2. India may have undercounted cases: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/news-analysis-india-may-have-undercounted-cases/article31822079.ece
      3. Developing COVID-19 vaccine: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/coronavirus-can-a-covid-19-vaccine-be-developed-soon/article31822315.ece
      4. Chikungunya: Persistent global transmission of Chikungunya from India: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/persistent-global-transmission-of-chikungunya-from-india/article31821943.ece
    2. Vulnerable Sections: Children: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/agriculture/world-day-against-child-labour-2020-vulnerable-children-worse-off-due-to-covid-19-71719
  3. International
    1. India-Nepal Border: Nepal passes amendment on new Map: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/nepal-parliaments-lower-house-unanimously-passes-bill-to-redraw-political-map/article31821242.ece
    2. India-China Border: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/line-of-actual-control-india-china-the-line-of-actual-contest/article31822311.ece

 

GS3

  1. Economy
    1. Supreme Court on Lockdown wages: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/no-coercive-action-against-pvt-firms-for-non-payment-of-full-wages-during-lockdown-sc/article31811500.ece
    2. Employment
      1. Sahakar Mitra: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1631125

 

Pre Only Facts

  1. World Food Prize 2020: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/soil-scientist-rattan-lal-wins-world-food-prize-2020-6456269/
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12-Jun-2020 16:50:14 PM

Newspaper Articles: 12th June

Important Articles from the Hindu, IE and PIB of 12th June 2020

GS1

  1. Society
    1. Racism:
      1. https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/the-gandhis-mandelas-and-kings-of-today/article31806120.ece
      2. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/west-indies-darren-sammy-ipl-racism-kalu-6454588/

 

GS2

  1. Indian Polity and Constitution
    1. Reservation not a fundamental Right: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/supreme-court-says-quota-not-fundamental-right-rejects-plea-6454699/
  2. Governance and Social Justice
    1. Health:
      1. ICMR Analysis of COVID-19: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/union-health-ministry-and-indian-council-medical-research-press-conference-in-new-delhi-on-june-11-2020/article31804894.ece
      2. Why asymptomatic cases matter: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/asymptomatic-cases-covid-19-coronavirus-6454677/
    2. Education: NIRF Ranking: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/iit-madras-retains-top-rank-in-national-institutional-ranking-framework/article31803000.ece
    3. Poverty and Related Issues: Universal Basic Income: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/govt-actively-considering-universal-basic-income-nhrc-tells-un/article31805107.ece
  3. International
    1. India-China and Quite Diplomacy: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/a-case-for-quiet-diplomacy/article31806194.ece
    2. India-Nepal: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/india-nepal-new-map-kalapani-6454647/
    3. International Criminal Court: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/donald-trump-targets-icc-with-sanctions-over-afghanistan-war-crimes-case/article31807047.ece

 

 

GS3

  1. EB&CC
    1. EB&CC: Lion Census Method: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/virus-outdated-census-method-mar-gujarats-lion-numbers/article31806558.ece

 

Pre Only Facts

  1. Lonar Lake: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/lonar-lake-turning-reddish-buldana-collector-asks-neeri-to-find-out-why-6454650/
  2. EB&CC: Indian Gaurs: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/first-estimation-exercise-of-indian-gaur-in-nilgiris-in-recent-years/article31806928.ece
  3. Disaster: inflows Mumbai: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1630928
  4. rtQPCR: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1630875
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 on 15-Jun-2020 01:58:51 AM
Sure, will be regular from now onwards. I have also started a daily answer writing initiative on this page. You can also follow it if you find that useful

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 on 14-Jun-2020 17:37:42 PM
Sir they are very usefull please provide regularly.??

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11-Jun-2020 11:02:25 AM

Newspaper Articles: 11th June 2020

GS2

  1. Indian Polity and Constitution
    1. Inter-state water dispute: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/centre-to-take-stock-of-krishna-and-godavari-water-utilisation/article31790230.ece
  2. Governance and Social Justice
    1. Vulnerable Section: Migrants: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/look-back-in-relief-the-hindu-editorial-on-the-migrant-labour-crisis/article31798558.ece
    2. Vulnerable Section: Tribals: Education complex: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/odisha-plans-mega-educational-complexes-for-tribal-students/article31774853.ece
    3. Health: Improving Public Health Care: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/needed-a-transfusion-for-public-health-care/article31798593.ece
    4. MGNREGA: Significance and better implementation: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/mgnrega-modi-govt-rural-jobs-coronavirus-derek-obrien-6452993/
  3. International
    1. India-China Border:
      1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/lac-row-china-reaches-accord-with-india/article31797681.ece
    1. G7 and the current world order
      1. https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/an-unravelling-of-the-group-of-seven/article31798577.ece

 

 

GS3

  1. Economy
    1. Development Bank: https://www.thehindu.com/business/development-bank-needed-to-support-low-cost-funding-app/article31798166.ece
  2. Agriculture
    1. Production of Saffron and Heeng in India: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1630406
  3. Science and Technology
    1. Biotechnology: MicroRNA: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/iit-madras-researchers-show-role-of-microrna-in-growth-and-spread-of-tongue-cancer-cells/article31778302.ece
  4. EB&CC
    1. Environment Performance Index: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/india-must-redouble-sustainability-efforts-environment-performance-index-71603
    2. Biodiversity: Lions increase in number: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/gujarats-pride-grows-as-it-now-hosts-674-gir-lions/article31799404.ece
  5. Defence and Internal Security
    1. Police Reforms: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/policing-the-police-is-not-enough/article31797746.ece

 

 

Pre Only Facts

  1. Geography: Darbuk-Shyok-Daulat Beg Oldie: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/lac-stand-off-india-china-darbuk-shyok-daulat-beg-oldie-dsdbo-road-6452997/
  2. Geography: Rhine River Germany: https://indianexpress.com/article/world/europe-rhine-river-dangerously-low-summer-6448254/
  3. Defence: Airforce: ARPIT: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1630268
  4. Environment: World Ocean Day: https://www.un.org/en/observances/oceans-day
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10-Jun-2020 17:43:24 PM