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Santosh Kumar

Science & Technology and Current Affairs

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05-Apr-2020 02:58:48 AM

The Laws that are relevant for the period of lockdown

Why in news?


In a communication to states on March 24, the Home Ministry said persons violating the containment measures will be liable to be punished under the Provisions of the Disaster Management Act 2005, besides Section 188 of IPC.


More Details


Section 51 of Disaster Management Act, 2005 provides for punishment for two kinds of offences:


Obstructing any officer or employee of the government or person authorized by any disaster management authority for discharge of a function; and


Refusing to comply with any direction given by the authorities under the Act.


Punishment can extend upto one year conviction, or two years if refusal leads to loss of lives or any imminent danger.



Section 188 of IPC deals with those disobeying an order passed by a public servant, and provides for imprisonment ranging from one to six months.


For those violating orders passed under the Epidemic Act, Section 188 of IPC is the provision under which punishment is awarded.


For Spreading Fear 


Section 54 of the Disaster Management Act provides for imprisonment, extending to one year, of those who make or circulate a false alarm or warning re-garding a disaster or its severity or magnitude


Section 505 of IPC provides for imprisonment of three years or fine, or both for those who publish or circulate anything which is likely to cause fear or alarm.

 

For False Claim to Aid, For Refusing to do duties, for Refusing to help 


Under Section 52, Disaster Management Act, whoever makes a false claim for obtaining “any relief, assistance, repair, reconstruction or other benefits” from any official authority can be sentenced to a maximum of two years imprisonment and a fine will be imposed on the person


Any authorised authority under the Act can requisite resources like persons and material resources, premises like land or building, or sheds and vehicles for rescue operations. Though there is a provision for compensation under the Act, any person who disobeys such an order can be sentenced to imprisonment up to one year


Legal Shield


For any offence under the Disaster Management Act, a court will take cognisance only if the complaint is filed by the national or state or district authority, or the central or state government. However, there is another provision: if a person has given notice of 30 days or more about an alleged offence, and about his intention to file a complaint, he or she can approach the court which can then take cognisance


The Act protects government officers and employees from any legal process for actions they took “in good faith"


Under the Epidemic Diseases Act too, no suit or other legal proceedings can lie against any person for any- thing done or intended to be done under good faith

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05-Apr-2020 00:54:48 AM

COVID and BCG (the Debate)

Why in news?

A debate is going on weather the BCG vaccine can protect against COVID-19 (IE April 2020) 

Details about BCG vaccine

The Bacillus Calmette-Gue´rin (BCG) vaccine is a live attenuated strain derived from an isolate of Mycobacterium bovis and has been used widely across the world as a vaccine for tuberculosis.

A live attenuated vaccine means that it uses a pathogen whose potency as a disease producer has been artificially disabled, but whose essential identifying characters, which help the body mount an immune response to it, have been left unchanged.


BCG in India

BCG vaccinations were first conducted in India in 1948.

It remains a part of basket of vaccines included under the Universal Immunization Program.

Can BCG be effective on COVID-19?

Researchers from the New York Institute of Technology (NYIT) analyzed the global spread of COVID-19, correlated it with data from World BCG Atlas that shows which countries have BCG vaccination coverage, and came to the conclusion that countries with a policy of universal BCG vaccination have had a lower number of cases than those like the US, where universal BCG vaccination was discontinued after the incidence of TB cam down, and Italy. Italy had never had a Universal BCG vaccination.

  • Japan had one of the early cases of COVID-19 but it has maintained a low mortality rate despite not implementing the most strict form of social isolation. It has been implementing universal BCG vaccination since 1947.
  • Iran started the Universal BCG vaccination policy only in 1984, leaving anybody over 36 years of age unprotected.
  • China also has BCG universal BCG policy since 1950s, but during the Cultural revolution (1966-1976), TB prevention and treatment agencies were disbanded and weakened.

The researchers claimed that the vaccine is reported to provide immunity against a large number of respiratory diseases. They however advocated randomized control trials with the vaccine to see the extent of immunity it can provide against the novel Coronavirus, which was not known to the world until Dec 2019.

Criticism of the above claim


Researchers from the McGill International TB Centre, Montreal wrote out a critique, questioning among other things its methodology, the extent of COVID-19 spread globally at the time the study was conducted, and some of the presumptions made. They questioned the premise that a correlation essentially is one of cause and effect without any other possible explanation.

They said that accepting these findings at face value has the potential for complacency in response to the pandemic, particularly in Low and middle income countries (LMIC)

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19-Mar-2020 15:47:55 PM

Prelims Facts: 19th March

Important Facts for Pre from 19th March Newspapers


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19-Mar-2020 15:37:02 PM

Prelims Facts: 18th March

Important Facts for Pre from 18th March Newspapers


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19-Mar-2020 15:21:39 PM

Prelims Facts: 17th March

Key issues which you should know for Prelims from 16th March Hindu and Indian Express


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19-Mar-2020 15:14:55 PM

Prelims Facts: 16th March

Key issues which you should know for Prelims from 16th March Hindu and Indian Express


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16-Mar-2020 07:13:06 AM

Prelims Facts: 15th March 2019

1. SIRT1 and Glucose:

  • An enzyme that goes by the name SIRT1 is known to be associated with regulation of metabolic activities and also ageing and hence has become a target of therapeutics.
  • A TFIR study shows that glucose controls the function of SIRT1 directly.
  • A shortage or absence of this control can lead to a diabetic-like state, while excess feeding and sustained low levels of SIRT1 can lead to obesity and enhanced ageing.
  • The glucose controls the functions of a protein SIRT1 which in turn maintains everyday feedfast cycles and is also associated with longevity

2.  Super-hydrophobic coating:

  • The team from the Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad, and Ohio State University used polyurethane and silicon dioxide nanoparticles to create the coating which can be easily spin-coated on steel.
  • A hydrophobic coating is a thin surface layer that repels water. It is made from hydrophobic (ultrahydrophobicity) materials. Droplets hitting this kind of coating can fully rebound.

3. OneHealth science

  • Understanding critical intersection between human health, domestic and wild animal health and the environment requires a new integrated framework — a paradigm called ‘OneHealth’.
  • The OneHealth programme aims to encourage team science by having networks of institutions collectively bid for grants to set up integrated OneHealth surveillance systems across India at 25 sentinel surveillance sites in potential emerging infectious disease hotspots

4. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC):

  • Regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of states in South Asia.
  • Members: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
  • Founded in Dhaka on 8 December 1985
  • Secretariat is based in Kathmandu, Nepal.
  • Economic and regional integration.
  • South Asian Free Trade Area in 2006.


5. Additional Tier-1 bonds:

  • AT1 bonds, also known as Additional Tier 1 bonds, are unsecured perpetual bonds issued by banks to shore up their capital base to meet Basel III requirements.
  • Basel III norms were a set of rules that banking regulators around the world came up with after the global financial crisis in 2008, to strengthen bank balance sheets.
  • Requiring banks to have their own skin in the game in the form of permanent capital, before taking on deposits or loans, is one of the underlying principles of Basel III norms.
  • The RBI’s version of Basel III norms requires Indian banks to hold a minimum capital amounting to 11.5% of their risk-weighted loans. Of this, about 9% is supposed to be the bank’s core capital (called Tier 1), with 5.5% in equity.
  • AT1 bonds are issued by banks to supplement their permanent or Tier 1 capital which is mainly made up of equity shares


6. The Iberian Peninsula is the westernmost of the three major southern European peninsulas— the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan.

  •  It is bordered on the southeast and east by the Mediterranean Sea, and on the north, west, and southwest by the Atlantic Ocean.
  • The Pyrenees Mountains are situated along the northeast edge of the peninsula, where it adjoins the rest of Europe.
  • Its southern tip is very close to the northwest coast of Africa, separated from it by the Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Sea


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24-Feb-2020 17:34:57 PM

Current Affairs Target Prelims 2020 Biodiversity (First Demo Class)

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20-Feb-2020 00:37:26 AM

Indian Scientific Expedition to the Southern Ocean (ISESO) 2020

Through this article we want to understand what is happening under the ISESO project of Ministry of Earth Science. We have also provided some practice objective questions for the topic.


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19-Feb-2020 10:51:35 AM

Newspaper Articles: 19th Feb 2020


GS1

  1. History and Culture
    1. Art Theft and Recovery: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/documents-provided-to-uk-to-retrieve-stolen-idol/article30856762.ece
  2. Society
    1. Secularism: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/the-significance-of-the-term-secular/article30853718.ece


GS2

  1. Indian Polity and Constitution
    1. ULBs: Empowering Mayors: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/its-time-to-empower-mayors/article30853708.ece
  2. Governance and Social Justice
    1. ST Status: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/karbis-against-st-status-for-hill-bodos-in-assam/article30854948.ece
    2. Healthcare and Innovation: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/powering-the-health-care-engine-with-innovation/article30854153.ece
    3. Women: Women Officers in Army:
      1. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/supreme-court-verdict-women-indian-army-6274740/
      2. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/editorials/women-in-indian-army-supreme-court-verdict-6274777/
    4. Women: Missing Women: Improved sex ratio in China and Haryana: https://www.livemint.com/opinion/columns/signs-of-hope-for-the-world-s-100-million-missing-women-11582046126242.html
  3. International Relations
    1. FATF: Pakistan to continue in Grey List: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/sub-group-of-terror-financing-watchdog-fatf-recommends-continuation-of-pakistan-in-grey-list/article30852467.ece
    2. India-USA: Trade Deal: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/in-us-trade-action-an-indian-counter-strategy/article30854131.ece
    3. India-Pakistan: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/india-pakistan-nuclear-weapons-army-balakot-6274778/


GS3

  1. Agriculture
    1. Food grain Production: https://www.thehindu.com/business/foodgrain-production-set-to-touch-a-record-high/article30853940.ece
  2. Science and Technology
    1. Space: Aditya L1: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/parker-solar-probe-eyes-on-the-sun-how-isro-is-preparing-for-its-next-giant-leap-in-space-6275034/
  3. Defence and Internal Security
    1. Internet Safety: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/one-in-three-adolescents-faced-online-abuse-finds-study-by-ngo/article30854618.ece

Pre Only Facts

  1. Defence: 24 MH-60R Helicopters: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/trumps-visit-may-seal-helicopter-deal/article30854024.ece
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19-Feb-2020 10:49:23 AM

Newspaper Articles: 18th February


GS2


Indian Polity and Constitution

  1. Habeas Corpus: https://www.livemint.com/opinion/columns/opinion-matters-of-personal-liberty-should-not-get-short-shrift-11581962943375.html
  2. Right to Protest: Shaheen Bagh: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/right-to-protest-a-fundamental-right-but-do-so-responsibly-sc-tells-shaheen-bagh-protesters/article30841756.ece
  3. Appointment of Judges: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/why-delay-appointments-asks-supreme-court/article30845600.ece
  4. Democracy and Capitalism: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/democracy-capitalism-donald-trump-us-elections-6272902/

Governance and Social Justice

  1. Women: Permanent Commission in Army:
    1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/women-officers-can-be-given-permanent-commission-sc/article30840323.ece
    2. https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/women-at-arms/article30844783.ece
    3. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/supreme-court-verdict-on-women-in-armed-forces-a-blow-to-stereotypical-mindset-says-lawyer/article30845462.ece
    4. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/women-in-army-what-supreme-court-said-6273177/
    5. https://www.livemint.com/opinion/online-views/an-indian-army-that-can-now-be-led-by-a-woman-11581963376478.html
  2. Children:
    1. Violence against Children: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/indias-disturbing-trauma-narrative/article30844791.ece
    2. Child Marriage: https://www.epw.in/journal/2020/6/national-family-health-survey-4/trends-differentials-and-determinants-child.html

International Relations

  1. Reducing US intervention in world: What should Delhi Do: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/donald-trump-us-india-yankees-6272942/
  2. Why US has sut out top Sri Lankan general - and where India stands: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/why-us-has-shut-out-top-sri-lanka-general-and-where-india-stands-6273196/



 

GS3


Economy

  1. $5 trillion economy: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/india-5-trillion-dollar-economy-gdp-rupee-6272931/
  2. SEBI caps fee for investment advisors: https://www.thehindu.com/business/Industry/sebi-caps-fees-for-investment-advisers/article30845012.ece
  3. RBI's aligning of accounting years with fiscal year: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/why-rbi-is-aligning-accounting-yr-with-fiscal-yr-6273183/
  4. Ease of starting business and local languages: https://www.livemint.com/opinion/columns/start-with-local-languages-for-the-ease-of-starting-a-business-11581962582497.html


Agriculture

  1. SUTRA PIC: Indigenous Cow Research initiative: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/government-unveils-plan-for-research-on-indigenous-cows/article30845071.ece 



Defence and Internal Security

  1. Peninsular Command by next year: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/peninsular-command-by-next-year-end-theatre-commands-by-2022-gen-rawat/article30840974.ece
  2. CRPF: Reforms: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/may-the-force-be-strengthened/article30844684.ece
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13-Feb-2020 23:48:07 PM

Reverse Osmosis

Ministry of Environment Forest & Climate Change have recently published a draft guidelines for regulating the Membrane Based Water Purification System including the reverse osmosis system. Through this article we want to understand what Reverse Osmosis is and why is it important to regulate the use of Reverse Osmosis system.


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13-Feb-2020 23:42:11 PM

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13-Feb-2020 23:40:56 PM

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13-Feb-2020 23:39:25 PM

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13-Feb-2020 23:37:29 PM

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13-Feb-2020 23:32:18 PM

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10-Feb-2020 01:51:13 AM

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10-Feb-2020 01:49:21 AM

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06-Feb-2020 20:22:57 PM

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03-Feb-2020 19:56:26 PM

Quantum Computing

In Budget 2020-21, the Finance Minister has announced National Mission on Quantum Technologies and Applications and allocated it Rs 8,000 crore over the next 5 years. Through this article we want to understand the fundamentals of what is Quantum Computing and why is it so important to focus on this particular technology.


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